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|504||▼a 참고문헌(p. 449-452)과 색인수록|
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백워드 설계는 진정한 이해력 개발과 진정한 수행력 평가를 겨냥하고 있다는 점에서 교육의 본래적 임무를 강조하고 있다. 또한 교과를 교과답게 가르치는 교육과정의 본질을 추구하는 시스템으로서 최근 회자되는 과정중심 평가, 소위 교.수.평.기 일체화, 교실수업개선 등을 포괄하고 있다. 이 아이디어들은 나아가서 최근의 IB 교육과정 시스템에도 녹아 있다. 이런 점에서 백워드 설계는 한국 공교육 혁신의 중요한 가늠자가 될 가능성을 충분히 지니고 있다.
백워드 설계(Backward Design)는 교육과정(단원)을 설계하는 새로운 방식이기 전에 교육과정과 수업, 평가를 바라보는 오래된 교육의 본질을 표현한 것이다. 많은 내용을 전달하는 것보다 내용의 진정한 이해를 토대로 자신이 삶의 주인공이 되도록 하는(교육과 삶의 통합, 전이) 교육의 본질을 구현하는 것이다. 이러한 백워드 설계는 교육이라는 인간 행위가 존재하는 한 사라지지 않을 것이다. 교육의 오래된 미래가 우리에게 온 것일 뿐이다. 미래 2022 개정 교육과정과 국가 교육과정 틀을 넘어서는 혁신적 교육과정에서는 '전이 가능한 심층적 이해'를 개발하는 교육과정의 연구와 실천은 더욱 고도화될 것이다.
백워드 설계는 진정한 이해력 개발과 진정한 수행력 평가를 겨냥하고 있다는 점에서 교육의 본래적 임무를 강조하고 있다. 물론 역사적으로 보면 Bruner의 지식의 구조에서 그 근원을 찾을 수 있다. 더욱이 백워드 설계는 교과를 교과답게 가르치는 교육과정의 본질을 추구하는 시스템으로서 최근 회자되는 과정중심 평가, 소위 교ㆍ수ㆍ평ㆍ기 일체화, 교실수업개선 등을 포괄하고 있다. 이 아이디어들은 나아가서 최근의 IB 교육과정 시스템에도 녹아 있다. 이런 점에서 백워드 설계는 한국 공교육 혁신의 중요한 가늠자가 될 가능성을 충분히 지니고 있다. 교육과정과 수업의 미래는 진정한 이해기반 교육의 틀을 중심으로 더욱 고도화될 것으로 기대된다.
경북대학교 사범대학 교육학과를 졸업하고 동대학원에서 교육과정 및 수업방법 전공으로 석·박사학위를 취득하였다. University of Wisconsin-Madison에서 Post-Doc. 과정을 이수했으며 Department of Curriculum and Instruction에서 연구원(Honorary Fellow)을 역임하였다. 한국대학교육 협의회 고등교육연구소 선임연구원, 순천대학교 교수를 거쳐 교육부 정책자 문 위원, 대학설립심사위원, 교육부 고등학교 교육과정 심의위원 및 위원장 등으로 활 동하였다. 현재 경북대학교 교육학과 교수로 재직 중이며, 한국 교육학회 및 한국교 육과정학회 부회장, 한국내러티브 교육학회 회장을 맡고 있다. 주요 저서로는 대학교육의 새로운 도전: 교육과정과 수업 혁신, 이해 중심 교육 과정을 위한 백워드 설계의 이론과 실천: 교실혁명, 최신 백워드 교육과정과 수업설계의 미래, 미래한국교육보고서, 교육은 왜 실패 하는가: 인지혁명과 희망교육으로의 전환, 인간 교육학의 혁명, 브루너 교육의 문화, 학교, 이렇게 바꾼다, 내러티브, 인문과학을 만나다, 인문·사회과학의 새로운 연구방법론: 내러티브학 탐구, 왜 지금 국제 바칼로 레아(IB)인가?: 교육 혁신과 국가 미래 등이 있다.
공주교육대학교 졸업 대구교육대학교 교육과정 및 방법 석사 졸업 경북대 대학원 교육과정 박사 졸업 주요 저서: 백워드 설계의 이론과 실천: 교실혁명 (현재) 경북대학교 강사, 대구 동평초등학교 교사
대구교육대학교 졸업 한국교원대학교 교육학 석사 졸업 경북대학교 대학원 교육과정 박사 졸업 주요 저서: 내러티브와 교육: 교과교육으로의 여행 (현재) 대구미래교육연구원 교육연구사
2판 서문 / 3 Ⅰ. 백워드 단원 설계 2.0의 이해 제1장 백워드 설계의 기본 입장 ···························································13 1. 학습자 중심 교육과정 설계 및 개발 ···········································13 2. 구성주의, 이해중심 교육과정 ···················································15 3. 이해력 개발을 강조하는 교육 목적 ············································16 4. 지식의 구조 강조 ·································································17 5. 역량 중심 교육과정 ······························································18 6. 인지과학과 신경과학 ·····························································20 제2장 1.0과 2.0의 차이 ···································································21 1. 내용상의 차이 ·····································································22 2. 설계 템플릿의 차이 ······························································24 제3장 교육과정-수업-평가의 입장 ························································27 1. 교육과정 ···········································································27 2. 수업 ················································································28 3. 학습 ················································································29 4. 평가 ················································································31 제4장 한국에서의 상황 ······································································33 1. 양의 학습 문제 ···································································33 2. 속도의 학습 문제 ·································································34 3. 수업 내용과 삶의 괴리 문제 ····················································34 4. 심층적 이해능력 평가의 부재 ···················································35 5. 교육과정-수업-평가의 비연계성 ················································36 제5장 백워드 설계의 모듈 ·································································39 1. 백워드 설계의 주요 아이디어(A모듈) ··········································42 2. 백워드 설계 템플릿(B모듈) ······················································43 Ⅱ. 백워드 설계의 기본 모듈(1) 제6장 학습목표 유형 ········································································49 1. 지식과 기능의 습득 ······························································49 2. 의미 구성 능력 개발 ·····························································50 3. 전이 능력 개발 ···································································52 제7장 본질적 질문과 이해 ·································································55 1. 본질적 질문의 중요성 ····························································61 2. 본질적 질문과 학습과의 관련성 ················································64 3. 기능 교과에서의 본질적 질문과 이해 ··········································67 4. 본질적 질문을 사용하기 위한 적합한 연령 ····································68 제8장 증거 결정과 평가 과제 ·····························································71 1. 평가의 타당도와 신뢰도 ·························································71 2. 학습목표에 따른 평가 과제 개발 ···············································73 제9장 학습경험 계획하기 ···································································79 1. 피상적 학습 대 심층적 학습 ····················································79 2. 학습목표 유형을 고려하여 학습경험 계획하기 ································81 3. WHERETO를 고려하여 학습경험 계획하기 ···································84 Ⅲ. 백워드 설계의 기본 모듈(2): 단계별 모듈 제10장 2.0 버전에 기반한 백워드 설계 매뉴얼 ·······································93 1. 백워드 설계 매뉴얼 구성의 특징 ···············································93 2. 백워드 설계 매뉴얼의 전체적인 흐름 ··········································95 제11장 백워드 설계의 시작점과 초기 단원 개요 개발 ······························101 1. 시작점 ·············································································101 2. 초기 단원 개요 개발 ····························································107 제12장 백워드 설계 1단계 ·······························································117 1. 1단계 설계 템플릿 및 설계 과정 ·············································117 2. 1단계 요소별 설계 방법과 관련 이론 ········································119 제13장 백워드 설계 2단계 ·······························································175 1. 2단계 설계 템플릿 및 설계 과정 ·············································175 2. 2단계 요소별 설계 방법과 관련 이론 ········································177 제14장 백워드 설계 3단계 ·······························································219 1. 3단계 설계 템플릿 및 설계 과정 ·············································219 2. 3단계 요소별 설계 방법과 관련 이론 ········································221 Ⅳ. 교과별 사례 제15장 교과별 설계 사례 ·································································283 1. 국어과 ·············································································283 2. 사회과 ·············································································293 3. 도덕과 ·············································································303 4. 수학과 ·············································································312 5. 과학과 ·············································································323 6. 영어과 ·············································································331 7. 체육과 ·············································································339 제16장 설계 안의 적용상의 유의점 ·····················································349 1. 개발 전 유의점 ··································································349 2. 개발 중 유의점 ··································································353 3. 개발 후 유의점 ··································································355 Ⅴ. 설계자로서의 교사 전문성 제17장 백워드 단원 설계의 25가지 문제 해결하기 ··································361 1. 서론 ···············································································361 2. 단원 목표의 문제(1단계) ·······················································362 3. 평가 증거에 관한 문제(2단계) ·················································375 4. 학습 계획의 문제(3단계) ·······················································385 제18장 단원 설계 전문성 ·································································403 1. 성취기준 분석 ····································································403 2. 평가 설계자로서의 전문성 ······················································404 3. 교과-단원-차시수업의 연계적 설계 전문성 ··································405 4. 본질적 질문 중심의 단원 재구성 전문성 ·····································406 제19장 2.0에서 추구하는 교사 전문성 ·················································409 1. 전이 능력을 추구하는 전문성 ··················································409 2. 상이한 유형의 학습목표 판단 전문성 ·········································410 3. 수행과제 설계: 준거와 루브릭 개발의 전문성 ·······························411 4. 1.0과의 연계 전문성 ····························································412 제20장 백워드 설계의 미래(포워드): 백워드 설계와 IB 교육과정 ·················413 1. 백워드 설계 속에서의 IB와의 연계성 ·········································413 2. 적용 사례: IB 단원 설계안 양식 ··············································424 3. 백워드 설계와 2022개정 교육과정: 전이 가능한 이해 개발 ··············439 참고문헌 ··············································································449 찾아보기 ··············································································453