Table of Contents
Introduction: The ever-changing landscape of language learning motivation research
1. Fundamental challenges I: The conceptualisation of ''motivation''
Challenge 1: What is motivation: a trait, a state or a process?
Innovation 1: McAdams''s ''New Big Five'' theory of personality
Innovation 2: Motivational implications of the New Big Five model
Challenge 2: How can we conceptualise motivation in a process-oriented manner?
Innovation 1: Process models of motivation
Innovation 2: Other theoretical attempts to ''capture time''
Challenge 3: Is it possible to distinguish motivation from affect and cognition?
Innovation: A phenomenological account
Challenge 4: Conscious versus unconscious motivation
2. Fundamental challenges II: Motivational dynamics
Challenge 5: How to account for the context of motivation
Innovation 1: The systematic characterisations of context
Innovation 2: The rise of ''social motivation''
Innovation 3: The rise of qualitative research
Innovation 4: Gardner''s fusion of personality and social psychology
Innovation 5: Person-in-context approaches
Challenge 6: The issue of different timescales
Innovation 1: The idiodynamic method
Innovation 2: Appropriate time window and timescale
Innovation 3: ''Proximal subgoals''
Challenge 7: The interference of multiple parallel goals
Innovation 1: From process models to a dynamic conception
Innovation 2: Goal configurations and temporal structuring
Innovation 3: Principles of goal prioritisation
Challenge 8: How to handle the dynamic complexity of motivation
Innovation 1: Applying the principles of complex dynamic systems theory
Innovation 2: Placing the agent in the centre of a complex motivational system
3. Fundamental challenges III: Motivation applied
Challenge 9: Motivation and SLA
Innovation 1: Taking a ''small lens'' approach
Innovation 2: Task-based motivation
Challenge 10: How to enhance motivation meaningfully, without carrots and sticks
Innovation 1: Applying motivational strategies
Innovation 2: Focusing on ''student engagement''
Innovation 3: Capitalising on role modelling
Innovation 4: Preventing demotivation and fostering remotivation
Innovation 5: Applying technology
Challenge 11: How can we measure a dynamic concept such as motivation?
Innovation 1: Conducting qualitative, longitudinal and intervention studies
Innovation 2: Conducting mixed methods research
Innovation 3: Retrodictive qualitative modelling
Innovation 4: Identifying motivational conglomerates
4. Research frontiers I: Unconscious motivation
Conscious agency and its unconscious limits
The case for unconscious motivation
The case for conscious motivation
Unconscious goal setting and goal pursuit
Automatized and chronic goals
Dual-process theories and the interaction of the conscious and the unconscious mind
Researching unconscious motivation
Traditional assessment of implicit motivation through projective tests
Modern assessment procedures
The relationship between explicit and implicit motivational measures: Research implications
Unconscious motivation in SLA
5. Research frontiers II: Vision
What is vision?
The neuropsychology of vision
Vision and human mental functioning: Dual coding theory and working memory
The absence of vision: Aphantasia
Envisioning the future: Mental time travelling and possible selves
Applications of vision in the social sciences
Vision in psychology
Vision and sport performance
Vision and business management
How does vision motivate?
Possible future selves and self-discrepancy theory
Mental contrasting and process imagery
Vision and hope
Vision and emotions
Vision and unconscious motivation
Vision and L2 motivation
6. Research frontiers III: Long-term motivation and persistence
High-octane motivational fuel: ''Self-concordant vision''
Limiting energy depletion through energy saving
Conserving motivational energy through habits and behavioural routines
Regenerating energy 1: Lessons from ''Directed Motivational Currents''
Directed motivational currents (DMCs)
Subgoals and progress checks
Affirmative feedback and social support
Regenerating energy 2: Lessons from ''psychological momentum''
Adler''s original conception of momentum
Modern conceptualisations of momentum
Lessons offered by momentum research for the understanding of long-term motivation
Augmenting energy with positive emotionality
The notion of passion in psychology
Motivational breakdown cover: Persistence and self-control
Overlapping theoretical constructs
Lessons emerging from the persistence literature