Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Original Title Page -- Original Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Table of Contents -- Contributors -- Acknowledgments -- Preface and Summary -- Chapter 1. Aging and Models of Control: The Hidden Costs of Wisdom -- Introduction -- Models of Control -- Aging and Control -- Conclusion -- Chapter 2. Control Understanding: Suggestions for a Developmental Framework -- An Overview of Conceptualizations of Control Understanding -- Research on Age-Graded Changes in Control Understanding -- Suggestions for a Developmental Framework -- Dimensionalization of Control Understanding -- Control Understanding in Relation to Other Developmental Processes -- Functions of Control Understanding -- Antecedents of Control Understanding -- Conclusion -- Chapter 3. Aging and Mindful Control -- Introduction -- Mindfulness/Mindlessness -- Behavioral Control in a New Light -- A Closer Look at Control as Predictability -- Illusion of Control and Learned Helplessness Reconsidered -- Implications and Applications -- Chapter 4. Choice, Control, and Cognitive Functioning -- Introduction -- Choice Versus Force -- Effects of Choice in Young Subjects -- The Motivation Hypothesis -- Effects of Choice in Aged Subjects -- The Nature of Choice -- Choice and Environmental Control -- The Nature of Environmental Control -- Environmental Control and Perceived Control -- Exploration of Environmental Control -- Effects of Environmental Control in Aged Subjects -- Implications and Practical Considerations for the Aged -- Conclusion -- Chapter 5. The Discourse of Control and the Maintenance of Well-Being -- Explanatory Antagonism in Understanding Control -- Definitional Symbiosis in the Internal-External Dichotomy -- Forms of Explanation -- The Social Functions of Explanatory Forms -- Explanatory Preference and the Process of Aging -- Exploring Correlates of Explanatory Preference -- Discussion and Implications -- Chapter 6. Health, Control, and Aging -- Introduction -- Health and Control -- Control, Health, and Aging -- Conclusion -- Chapter 7. Conceptions of Self over the Life Span: Reflections on the Dialectics of Change -- The Self as a Developmental Construct -- A Dual Perspective on Self-Concept Development: What People Know About Themselves and How They Attained Their Knowledge -- Self-Concept Development from the Perspective of Life-Event Research -- Self-Concept Stability in Adulthood: An Empirical Illustration -- Summary and Conclusions -- Chapter 8. Personal Control in Later Life: Stability, Change, and Cognitive Correlates -- Definition and Measurement of Personal Control -- Does Personal Control Change in Adulthood? -- Personal Control and Intellectual Aging -- Chapter 9. Attributional Components of Locus of Control: Longitudinal, Retrospective, and Contemporaneous Analyses -- Introduction -- Age-Related Patterns on Locus of Control Items -- Locus of Control in the Context of Coping with Life Events -- Conclusion -- Chapter 10. Personal Control and Emotional Evaluation of Development in Partnership Relations During Adulthood -- Development as Personal Production: Basic Tenets of an Action Perspective on Life-Span Development -- Action Regulating Development: Conceptual Remarks -- Mutual Control and Co-orientation of Development in Partnership Relations -- Emotional Experience of Development and Aging in Partnership Relations -- Personal Control Over Development, Emotional Experience, and Dyadic Adjustment: Some Exploratory Investigations -- Summary and Conclusions -- Chapter 11. Helplessness in Institutional Settings: Adaptation or Iatrogenic Disease? -- Introduction -- Control Theory -- Institutional Interventions -- Secondary Control -- Issues in Control Interventions -- Health and Control in the Institutionalized Aged -- Operant and Role Theory -- Limits to Intervention -- Summary and Conclusion -- Chapter 12. The Social World in Long-Term Care Institutions: Psychosocial Control Toward Dependency? -- Introduction -- Empirical Findings of Our Research Program on Dependency in the Aged -- Implications of Empirical Findings: The Relationship Between Dependency and Loss of Control -- Conclusion -- Chapter 13. Occupational Careers, Work, and Control -- Introduction -- Studies of the Relationship Between Work and Locus of Control -- Issues Regarding Objective Restrictiveness and Control Awareness -- The Developmental Course of Control Awareness, Occupational Restrictiveness, and Retirement -- Chapter 14. Implications of Control and Responsibility on Helping the Aged -- Overview -- Control Issues in the Critique of Help -- Models of Helping and Coping -- On Distinguishing Between Causes of Problems and Their Solutions -- Applications to Elderly Recipients: Selecting Helping Models -- Future Directions and Policy Implications -- Author Index -- Subject Index -- .