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Becoming human : a theory of ontogeny

Becoming human : a theory of ontogeny (Loan 1 times)

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
Tomasello, Michael.
Title Statement
Becoming human : a theory of ontogeny / Michael Tomasello.
Publication, Distribution, etc
Cambridge, Massachusetts :   Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,   2019.  
Physical Medium
x, 379 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
9780674980853 (hardcover : alk. paper)
요약
Virtually all theories of how humans have become such a distinctive species focus on evolution. Here, Michael Tomasello proposes a complementary theory of human uniqueness, focused on ontogenetic processes. His data-driven model explains how those things that make us most human are constructed during the first years of a child's life. Tomasello assembles nearly three decades of experimental work with chimpanzees, bonobos, and human children to propose a new framework for psychological development between birth and seven years of age. He identifies eight pathways that starkly differentiate humans from their closest primate relatives: social cognition, communication, cultural learning, cooperative thinking, collaboration, prosociality, social norms, and moral identity. In each of these, great apes possess rudimentary abilities. But then, Tomasello argues, the maturation of humans' evolved capacities for shared intentionality transform these abilities into uniquely human cognition and sociality. The first step occurs around nine months, with the emergence of joint intentionality, exercised mostly with caregiving adults. The second step occurs around three years, with the emergence of collective intentionality involving both authoritative adults, who convey cultural knowledge, and coequal peers, who elicit collaboration and communication. Finally, by age six or seven, children become responsible for self-regulating their beliefs and actions so that they comport with cultural norms. Built on the essential ideas of Lev Vygotsky, Becoming Human places human sociocultural activity within the framework of modern evolutionary theory, and shows how biology creates the conditions under which culture does its work.--
Content Notes
I. Background: In search of human uniqueness -- Evolutionary foundations -- II. The ontogeny of uniquely human cognition: Social cognition -- Communication -- Cultural learning -- Cooperative thinking -- III. The ontogeny of uniquely human sociality: Collaboration -- Prosociality -- Social norms -- Moral identity -- IV. Conclusion: A neo-Vygotskian theory of human ontogeny -- The power of shared agency.
Bibliography, Etc. Note
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
Developmental psychology. Ontogeny. Socialization. Evolutionary psychology. Behavior evolution.
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020 ▼a 9780674980853 (hardcover : alk. paper)
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100 1 ▼a Tomasello, Michael.
245 1 0 ▼a Becoming human : ▼b a theory of ontogeny / ▼c Michael Tomasello.
260 ▼a Cambridge, Massachusetts : ▼b Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, ▼c 2019.
300 ▼a x, 379 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 25 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and index.
505 0 ▼a I. Background: In search of human uniqueness -- Evolutionary foundations -- II. The ontogeny of uniquely human cognition: Social cognition -- Communication -- Cultural learning -- Cooperative thinking -- III. The ontogeny of uniquely human sociality: Collaboration -- Prosociality -- Social norms -- Moral identity -- IV. Conclusion: A neo-Vygotskian theory of human ontogeny -- The power of shared agency.
520 ▼a Virtually all theories of how humans have become such a distinctive species focus on evolution. Here, Michael Tomasello proposes a complementary theory of human uniqueness, focused on ontogenetic processes. His data-driven model explains how those things that make us most human are constructed during the first years of a child's life. Tomasello assembles nearly three decades of experimental work with chimpanzees, bonobos, and human children to propose a new framework for psychological development between birth and seven years of age. He identifies eight pathways that starkly differentiate humans from their closest primate relatives: social cognition, communication, cultural learning, cooperative thinking, collaboration, prosociality, social norms, and moral identity. In each of these, great apes possess rudimentary abilities. But then, Tomasello argues, the maturation of humans' evolved capacities for shared intentionality transform these abilities into uniquely human cognition and sociality. The first step occurs around nine months, with the emergence of joint intentionality, exercised mostly with caregiving adults. The second step occurs around three years, with the emergence of collective intentionality involving both authoritative adults, who convey cultural knowledge, and coequal peers, who elicit collaboration and communication. Finally, by age six or seven, children become responsible for self-regulating their beliefs and actions so that they comport with cultural norms. Built on the essential ideas of Lev Vygotsky, Becoming Human places human sociocultural activity within the framework of modern evolutionary theory, and shows how biology creates the conditions under which culture does its work.-- ▼c Provided by publisher
650 0 ▼a Developmental psychology.
650 0 ▼a Ontogeny.
650 0 ▼a Socialization.
650 0 ▼a Evolutionary psychology.
650 0 ▼a Behavior evolution.
945 ▼a KLPA

Holdings Information

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No. 1 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 155 T655b Accession No. 111810796 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Author Introduction

마이클 토마셀로(지은이)

독일의 막스플랑크 진화인류학연구소 공동 소장을 맡고 있는 세계적인 영장류학자이다. 심리학을 전공하고 영장류의 인지능력과 문화가 인간과 어떻게 다른지 비교하는 연구 및 아이들의 언어 습득에 관한 연구에서 큰 업적을 남겼다. 인지과학과 심리철학에 중요한 기여를 한 연구자에게 수여하는 ‘장 니코드 상Jean Nicod Prize’ 외에 다수의 학술상을 수상했으며, 세계적으로 몇 손가락 안에 꼽히는 다학제적 연구자로 인정받는다. 사회성과 협력에 초점을 두고 인간의 사회적 인지능력의 기원을 연구했으며, 영장류의 인지 과정의 이해에 큰 기여를 했다. 구겐하임 재단, 영국 아카데미, 네덜란드 왕립아카데미, 독일 국립과학아카데미 등에서 과학적 업적을 인정받았다. 지은 책으로 《생각의 기원A Natural History of Human Thinking》을 비롯해 《이기적 원숭이와 이타적 인간Why We Cooperate》, 《인간의 의사소통 기원Origins of Human Communications》, 《인간 인지의 문화적 기원The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition》 등이 있다.

Information Provided By: : Aladin

Table of Contents

Section	Section Description	Page Number
Preface	p. ix
I	Background	
Chapter 1	    In Search of Human Uniqueness	p. 3
Chapter 2	    Evolutionary Foundations	p. 10
        Human Evolution	p. 11
        Human Ontogeny	p. 22
        Explanation in Developmental Psychology	p. 32
II	The Ontogeny Of Uniquely Human Cognition	
Chapter 3	    Social Cognition	p. 45
        From Apes: Imagining What Others Perceive	p. 46
        Joint Attention	p. 53
        The Coordination of Perspectives	p. 64
        Becoming "Objective"	p. 82
Chapter 4	    Communication	p. 91
        From Apes: Intentional Communication	p. 93
        Cooperative Communication	p. 98
        Conventional Communication	p. 112
        Becoming Symbolic	p. 127
Chapter 5	    Cultural Learning	p. 134
        From Apes: Social Learning	p. 135
        Imitation and Conformity	p. 141
        Instructed Learning	p. 147
        Becoming Knowledgeable	p. 155
Chapter 6	    Cooperative Thinking	p. 161
        From Apes: Individual Thinking	p. 162
        Collaborative Reasoning	p. 166
        Coordinated Decision-Making	p. 174
        Becoming Reasonable	p. 183
III	The Ontogeny Of Uniquely Human Sociality	
Chapter 7	    Collaboration	p. 191
        From Apes: Acting in Parallel with Others	p. 193
        Dual-Level Collaboration	p. 195
        Joint Commitment	p. 204
        Becoming Second-Personal	p. 211
Chapter 8	    Prosociality	p. 219
        From Apes: Basic Sympathy	p. 220
        Smirtuan Helping and Sharing	p. 225
        Fairness	p. 232
        Becoming Cooperative	p. 242
Chapter 9	    Social Norms	p. 249
        From Apes: Group Life	p. 251
        Social Norms	p. 254
        Justice	p. 262
        Becoming Group-Minded	p. 269
Chapter 10	    Moral Identity	p. 275
        From Apes: Social Evaluation	p. 276
        Self-Presentation and Self-Conscious Emotions	p. 278
        Moral Justification and Identity	p. 285
        Becoming Responsible	p. 291
IV	Conclusion	
Chapter 11	    A Neo-Vygotskian Theory	p. 297
        Global Theories of Human Ontogeny	p. 298
        Shared Intentionality Theory	p. 304
        Problems and Prospects	p. 334
Chapter 12	    The Power of Shared Agency	p. 340
References	p. 345
Index	p. 373

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