Cover -- Half Title Page -- Title Page -- Copyright -- About the Authors -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- 1. Big Ideas and Research That Guide the Profession -- The Language-Based Theory of Learning -- Universals and Specifics of Language and Literacy -- Literacy: A Universal Human Right or a Privilege? -- The Interaction of Two Developing Systems -- English as a New Language: Four Domains and the Fifth Domain -- Language-Centered Factors Influencing SLA -- Nonlinguistic Influences on SLA -- Language Teaching Approaches and Methods and the Role of Reading -- Content-Based Instruction -- CBI-Based Instructional Models -- The Influence of Vygotsky''s Theories on Second-Language Learning -- Deficit Theory -- Research into Effective Teaching Strategies for ELLs -- 2. First-Language Influence in Second-Language Acquisition -- The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis -- Language as an Innate Human Endowment -- The Interdependence Hypothesis -- Sociocultural Theory -- L2 Reading Models -- Language Distance or Linguistic Proximity -- The Problem with "Transfer -- Cross-Linguistic Influence -- Examples of PCI -- Non-Effects -- Metalinguistic Awareness Facilitates the Study of New Languages -- How L1 Reading Differs from Reading in a New Language -- Literacy-Related Hypotheses about SLA -- Performance Definitions for ELLs -- 3. ELL Oracy: Listening Comprehension and Oral Language Development -- Listening Comprehension in English as a New Language -- Probabilistic Reasoning -- Oral Proficiency in English as a New Language -- 4. Learning to Read, Write, and Spell Words in English as a New Language -- How Word Recognition Occurs in English -- Probabilistic Reasoning for Reading -- Major Kinds of Writing Systems -- 5. Using Morphemes to Learn Vocabulary -- Morphemes: The Building Blocks of Words -- English, a Morphophonemic Language -- Morphemes through Different Lenses -- Two Major Categories of English Morphemes -- Morpheme Study in the Classroom -- 6. Word Formation Processes, Cognates, and Collocations -- Vocabulary: The Bottom Line for Reading in Any Language -- English, a Richly Generative Language -- Using Cognates -- Collocations: Phrasal Verbs, Idioms, and Listemes -- 7. "The Same, but Different": Reading Fluency in English as a New Language -- A Working Definition of Fluency -- Automaticity Theory -- Measuring Reading Comprehension: Oral Reading Fluency as a Proxy for Reading Comprehension -- ELLs and Fluency Research -- Fluency Instruction -- Success in Fluency Instruction for ELLs -- Problems with Fluency Assessments -- Problems Specific to ELLs -- 8. Achieving Comprehension in L2 English Reading -- Comprehending Connected Text in a New Language Is Hard! -- Strategy Use by L1 Learners -- Word-Learning Strategies -- Phrase- and Sentence-Level Reading Strategies -- Paragraph- and Discourse-Level Reading Strategies -- Metacognitive Strategies -- Extensive Reading Develops All of the Strategies -- Additional Ideas for Developing Classroom and School Resources -- 9. Writing to Learn in English across the Curriculum -- Interactions between Reading and Writing -- Written Language: Not Just Frozen Speech! -- A Change in the Philosophy of L1 Writing -- Process Writing and Writing Workshop -- Writing Workshop and ELLs'' Writing Needs -- Instructional Settings -- A Framework for Analyzing School Writing Tasks -- Mistakes and Errors in ELL Writing -- Cultural Aspects of Writing in English -- Understanding Plagiarism -- Spelling and Handwriting -- Guidance from the English Language Proficiency Standards -- 10. Literacy, Language Learning, and the Digital Revolution -- Changes to Literacy -- Changes in the Teaching and Learning of Languages -- New Roles for Teachers and Learners -- New Literacies -- Digital Literacy as a Content Area -- Online Databases Now Available to Teachers -- Glossary -- References -- Index -- .