This doctoral dissertation presents the realistic visual simulation of freezing phenomenon. We propose a physics-inspired simulation framework that expresses visual effects of flowing water frozen in glaze or directional icicles. The proposed ice model considers the direction of the water flow, which affects the growth of icicles.
Water dynamics are computed using a conventional particle-based simulation. Ice glaze and directional icicles are generated by incorporating our freezing solver. To determine whether a water particle is converted into ice or remains liquid, we compute
the nucleation energy based on the humidity and water flow. The humidity is approximated as a virtual water film on object surfaces. The water flow is incorporated
by introducing a growth direction vector to guide the direction of icicle growth. Ice-generating regions can be controlled using 3D modeling tools such as Autodesk Maya or 3DS Max.
Finally, We presents a particle-grid method to simulate the generation of opaque ice which has air bubbles in it. Water temperature is diffused over a grid, and the exchange of dissolved air between ice and water particles is simulated. We render a particle as an air bubble if it has sufficient air. Otherwise, it is treated as a cloudy volume by distributing air into dissolved air field when the final state has been reached. In addition, our method includes a model in which heat transfer rate may change across the grid. Unlike previous models which could generate an ice volume of only fixed shapes, our approach uses signed distance function (SDF) to generate opaque ice volumes stored in containers of various geometric shapes and can render needle-shaped or egg-shaped bubbles.