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지식의 탄생 : 지식개념에 대한 학문적ㆍ객관적 리뷰 (Loan 11 times)

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
이상오
Title Statement
지식의 탄생 : 지식개념에 대한 학문적ㆍ객관적 리뷰 / 이상오 지음
Publication, Distribution, etc
서울 :   한국문화사,   2016  
Physical Medium
xv, 702 p. ; 24 cm
ISBN
9788968173523
General Note
진정한 지식이란 무엇인가?  
Bibliography, Etc. Note
참고문헌(p. 662-681)과 색인수록
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020 ▼a 9788968173523 ▼g 93110
035 ▼a (KERIS)BIB000014072465
040 ▼a 222001 ▼c 222001 ▼d 211009
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085 ▼a 001 ▼2 DDCK
090 ▼a 001 ▼b 2016z4
100 1 ▼a 이상오 ▼0 AUTH(211009)94487
245 1 0 ▼a 지식의 탄생 : ▼b 지식개념에 대한 학문적ㆍ객관적 리뷰 / ▼d 이상오 지음
260 ▼a 서울 : ▼b 한국문화사, ▼c 2016
300 ▼a xv, 702 p. ; ▼c 24 cm
500 ▼a 진정한 지식이란 무엇인가?
504 ▼a 참고문헌(p. 662-681)과 색인수록
536 ▼a 이 저서는 2011년도 정부재정(교육부)으로 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 연구되었음 ▼g (NRF-2011-812-B00070)
945 ▼a KLPA

Holdings Information

No. Location Call Number Accession No. Availability Due Date Make a Reservation Service
No. 1 Location Main Library/Monographs(3F)/ Call Number 001 2016z4 Accession No. 111762278 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 2 Location Main Library/Monographs(3F)/ Call Number 001 2016z4 Accession No. 511035568 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Book Introduction

같은 사실을 놓고도 서로의 지식이 다르고, 같은 사건을 보고도 서로 보는 각도가 가지각색이다. 그래서 충돌이 발생한다. 지식은 그냥 우리가 보고 느끼고 생각하는 것만으로 충분한 것이 아닌가? 아니면 아직 지식이 부족해서 그런가? 또 아니면 내가 잘못 알고 있는 것인가? 그럼 어떤 것이 정말 지식인가? 심지어 도대체 지식이 세상에 존재하기는 하는 것인가? 그렇다면 과연 정확한 지식은 무엇이라는 말인가?

혹시 아무도 진정한 지식을 모르고 있는 것은 아닐까? 우리 인간은 도대체 어디까지 알 수 있는 것인가? 어디까지 알아야만 비로소 안다고 할 수 있는 것인가? 아니면 우리가 알고 있는 것은 어디까지가 진실이고, 어디까지가 거짓인가? 우리가 안다고 하지만, 과연 우리는 무엇을 진정 알고 있다고 하는 것인가? 우리는 어떻게 진정한 지식을 얻을 수 있는 것일까? 이 책은 오늘날 통용되고 이해되는 ‘지식의 개념’에는 문제점과 한계 내지 모순이 함께하고 있다는 ‘대전제’를 가지고 시작한다.

‘우리 인간의 삶에 유용하고 의미있는 진정한 지신은 무엇이며,
어떻게 그러한 지식(의 획득)이 가능한가?’


같은 사실을 놓고도 서로의 지식이 다르고, 같은 사건을 보고도 서로 보는 각도가 가지각색이다. 그래서 충돌이 발생한다. 지식은 그냥 우리가 보고 느끼고 생각하는 것만으로 충분한 것이 아닌가? 아니면 아직 지식이 부족해서 그런가? 또 아니면 내가 잘못 알고 있는 것인가? 그럼 어떤 것이 정말 지식인가? 심지어 도대체 지식이 세상에 존재하기는 하는 것인가? 그렇다면 과연 정확한 지식은 무엇이라는 말인가? 혹시 아무도 진정한 지식을 모르고 있는 것은 아닐까? 우리 인간은 도대체 어디까지 알 수 있는 것인가? 어디까지 알아야만 비로소 안다고 할 수 있는 것인가? 아니면 우리가 알고 있는 것은 어디까지가 진실이고, 어디까지가 거짓인가? 우리가 안다고 하지만, 과연 우리는 무엇을 진정 알고 있다고 하는 것인가? 우리는 어떻게 (진정한) 지식episteme을 얻을 수 있는 것일까? 우리가 인식認識한다는 것은 과연 무엇인가? 그리고 과연 우리는 무엇을 인식할 수 있다는 것일까?
이 책은 오늘날 통용되고 이해되는 ‘지식의 개념’에는 문제점과 한계 내지 모순이 함께하고 있다는 ‘대전제’를 가지고 시작한다.

[머리말]

이게 맞는지, 저게 맞는 것인지? 도대체 어떤 것이 확실한 것인지? 미래학자 피터 드럭커는 21세기를 ‘지식사회’라고 규정했다. 지식이 자본이 되고 지식이 권력이 되는 세상이라는 뜻이다. 반면 미래학자 앨빈 토플러는 21세기를 ‘압솔리지의 시대’라고 한다. 압솔리지obsoledge, 즉 ‘쓰레기 지식/쓸모없는 지식의 시대’라는 말이다. 지식과 정보의 홍수 시대에 아침마다 스팸 메일이 수북이 쌓인다는 사실은 이를 입증한다. 그렇다면 도대체 이 시대에 우리는 어떤 지식을 획득해야만 지혜로운 삶을 살 수 있다는 말인가? 모든 것이 ‘터미놀로지terminology’, 즉 ‘전문용어’의 문제이다. 우리는 21세기를 전문가의 시대라고 한다. 그러나 전문가가 보이지 않는다. 모두들 전문가를 자처하지만 터미놀로지를 구사하는 진짜는 거의 없다. 과학(학문)이 힘을 잃은 것이다. 특히 ‘교육’이 그렇다. 대한민국 사람들은 모두 교육의 전문가다. 그래서 배가 산으로 간다. 모두가 전문가라고 하지만 되는 일은 없다. 사실 ‘교육’이라는 전문용어, 즉 터미놀로지는 일반인이 말하는 ‘교육’과 전혀 무관하다. 그럼에도 불구하고 우리의 교육은 전문가의 터미놀로지와는 전혀 무관하게 이루어진다. 국가는 엄청난 세금을 쏟아붓지만, 결과는 글쎄다. 잘못된 터미놀로지로 이루어진 국민의 세금투입은 그냥 낭비다.
"지식의 탄생"을 쓰는 5년은 즐거운 시간이었다. 지식이 이렇게 탄생하고 저렇게 소멸되고 또 새로운 지식이 이런저런 이유로 대세가 되기도 하고 소리 없이 묻히기도 한다. 소위 지식의 생사 부침이 이렇게 다양하고 복잡하게 전개되는 것을 추적하는 일이 가져다준 재미는 상상 이상이었다.
글을 쓰다가 가끔씩 이런 생각이 나서 웃음이 나온 적이 있다. 그냥 오래전부터 ‘우리가 사용하는 지식은 과연 어디서 어떻게 나온 것일까?’ ‘내가 한번 추적해 볼까?’ 그런데 국가(한국연구재단)에서 지원해 준다고 하니 이런 경사가 또 어디 있겠나? 뽑아준 심사위원들에게 감사하다는 말을 전한다. 세상에 이런 순수한 사람들도 있다니.
대학에서 주어진 연구와 교육을 병행하면서 그래도 시간이 허락하는 한 엄청난 문헌들을 참고했지만 모두 다 끌어오지는 못했다. 좀 아쉽다. 그동안 훌륭한 책들도 만나고 한심한 글도 만나고 헤어지는 시간을 수없이 반복하면서 ‘성찰과 반성’의 시간을 많이 보냈다. 또한, 끊임없는 사색과 명상의 순간들이었다. 정말 재미있던 시간들이었다.
사실 이 책 "지식의 탄생"은 ‘(참)지식의 종말’이며 ‘지식인의 죽음’이다. 5년 이상 나름 공을 들였지만, 집필결과는 ‘암담함’ 그 자체이다. 필자는 교육학자로서 더 말할 나위가 없다. 과연 우리는 다음 세대에게 어떠한 지식을 어떻게 가르쳐야 하는지? 소위 ‘쓰레기 지식’이 오히려 판을 치는 세상에서 어떻게 우리는 살아남을 수 있을까? 조만간 인공지능이 인간을 지배하는 세상도 온다고 하는데, 인간이 노예를 만들어 놓고 마침내 주인과 종이 바뀌는 꼴이 재현되는 셈이다. 그런데 이번에는 보다 심각하다. 물리적으로도 나약한 육체를 가진 인간과 엄청난 파워를 가진 기계의 대결이 아닌가?
결론은 둘 중 하나다. 이 세상을 평생동안 노예로 살든지, 아니면 이왕 태어났으니까 사는 동안이라도 (참)지식에 도전하는 지조 있는 삶을 살아 보든지. 우리말에 ‘알아야 면장을 하지’라는 말도 있고 ‘알아서 남 주느냐’는 말도 있다. 서양에서는 ‘아는 것이 힘’이라는 말도 있다. 지식이 삶을 결정한다. 불이 뜨겁다는 사실을 알아야만 손을 데지 않는다. 칼날이 무섭다는 사실을 알아야 조심한다. 삶과 지식은 하나다. 이런 상황에서 우리가 살아남기 위해서는 제대로 된 지식을 얻는 것이 필수적 조건이다. ‘선무당 사람 잡는다’는 말이 있다. 오늘날은 ‘돌팔이 의사’라는 말도 있다. 한마디로 지식은 목숨이다. 잘못된 지식으로 무장한 선무당들과 돌팔이들이 설치는 세상이다. 참지식이 죽으면서 우리의 삶도 같이 죽어가고 있다. 모두가 ‘터미놀로지’의 문제이다. 잘못된 터미놀로지를 가지면 돌팔이가 되고 제대로 된 터미놀로지는 명의名醫를 만든다. 명의가 사람을 살리고 돌팔이가 사람을 죽인다. 터미놀로지로서 ‘지혜-내-지식’이 간절히 요청된다.
독자들이여, 이제 ‘새로운 지식의 탄생’을 기원하자. 왜냐구요. 100세 시대에 아직도 더 살아야 하니까. "지식의 탄생"은 독자들에게 현학적 지식 하나를 더 주겠다는 의도가 아니다. 지식의 탄생과 소멸의 역사 과정을 읽으면서 시행착오의 지식에 대한 많은 반성과 성찰의 시간을 가지길 바란다. ‘새로운 지식의 탄생’, 그것은 바로 독자 여러분들의 몫이 될 수밖에 없다. 이 글을 마무리하면서 나 역시 ‘새로운 지식의 탄생’을 위해 또 다른 기획을 하였다. 그것 역시 국가에서 또 지원해 주겠다고 한다. 고맙다. "문화해석학"의 집필이 시작되었다.
글이 쓰이는 방식은 게슈탈트Gestalt(전체형상) 접근방식으로 이루어졌다. 좀 낯설지 모른다. 이 책 여기저기에서 중언부언重言復言이 자주 목격된다. 단순한 반복이 아니다. 또 다른 주제로 넘어가기 위한 전초기지이다. 먼저 글에 뼈와 살이 붙으면서 내용은 보다 풍부해지고 다른 주제로 연결되면서 마침내 글은 나선형螺旋形으로 확장된다. 애초에 뿌옇던 전체의 상像이 점점 더 명확하게 드러나는 것이다.
어느 날 낯선 사람이 와서 “한국문화사의 이상호라고 합니다.” 하면서 명함을 내민다. “누구요?” “이상호라고 합니다.” 이름이 비슷하다. “그런데요?” 나의 반응이다. “교수님께서 준비 중이신 저술원고 "지식의 탄생"을 저희 출판사에서 출판하고 싶습니다.” “아 그래요.” 문 앞에서 나눈 짤막한 대화였다. 3차례에 걸친 교정도 그렇게 꼼꼼할 수가 없다. 강인애 편집자님과 표지 디자이너 이사랑님 그리고 이름 모를 분들에게도 고맙다는 인사를 전한다. 아울러 모든 가족에게 그저 고맙고 이제 고령의 연세에 암 투병을 시작하신 아버님께, 불초자 이 글을 바칩니다.

2016년 4월 어느 화창한 봄 날
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이 상 오


Information Provided By: : Aladin

Author Introduction

이상오(지은이)

독일 튀빙엔대학교 교육학 박사학위를 받고 연세대학교 교육대학원 교수로 재직 중이며 “학습혁명 H 사고” 외 50여 권의 책을 저술하였다. 미래융합연구원 창의인성연구센터장으로 있으면서 상상과 창의에 대한 새로운 관점을 제시했으며 코로나로 인한 교육붕괴의 상황에 공동저자인 박이철과 함께 지금까지의 교육에서 배제된 질문을 살린 획기적이고 효과적인 새로운 대안을 제시하게 되었다.

Information Provided By: : Aladin

Table of Contents

머리말 _ v 
프롤로그 _ 1 
I. 지식의 개념 
01 지식[앎]의 원천················································································ 23 
1. 감각: 관찰과 경험········································································· 23 
1.1 관찰과 지식·············································································· 23 
1.2 경험과 지식·············································································· 27 
2. 신화······························································································ 34 
2.1 신화적 상상력·········································································· 34 
(1) 서양······················································································· 34 
(2) 동양······················································································· 39 
2.2 신화와 일상·············································································· 44 
2.3 신화와 과학·············································································· 47 
3. 이성······························································································ 51 
3.1 시행착오와 이성 ······································································ 51 
3.2 자연탐구와 이성······································································· 53 
3.3 이성과 지식·············································································· 55 
4. 믿음······························································································ 61 
4.1 서양························································································· 61 
(1) 범신론과 유일신론·································································· 61 
(2) 실재론과 유명론····································································· 65 
4.2 동양························································································· 68 
(1) 도가 사상··············································································· 68 
(2) 유가 사상··············································································· 71 
(3) 불가 사상··············································································· 80 
02 인식론: 지식에 관한 이론·································································· 87 
1. 개요······························································································ 87 
2. 인식과 지식의 상관성···································································· 89 
3. 인식론의 탐구과제········································································ 97 
3.1 지식(앎)이란 무엇인가? - 우리는 ‘무엇을’ 알 수 있는가? ············ 97 
3.2 우리는 어떻게 지식을 습득하는가? - 우리는 ‘어떻게’ 알 수 있는가? ·· 100 
(1) 관찰․경험적 차원······························································· 100 
(2) 경험․실험적 차원······························································· 101 
(3) 경험․논리적 차원······························································· 103 
(4) 이성․선험적 차원······························································· 107 
(5) 분석․종합적 차원······························································· 109 
(6) 생성․구성적 차원······························································· 114 
3.3 우리가 안다는 것이 어떻게 가능한가? 
- 우리는 그것이 앎(지식)이라는 것을 어떻게 알 수 있는가? ········ 115 
4. 인식론의 범주············································································· 118 
4.1 전통적 인식론········································································· 118 
(1) 인식의 대상에 관한 이론······················································· 118 
(2) 인식의 원천에 관한 이론······················································· 119 
(3) 진리의 조건에 관한 이론······················································· 119 
4.2 형이상학적 인식론·································································· 120 
4.3 분석적 인식론········································································· 121 
(1) 전통적 인식론에 대한 비판··················································· 121 
(2) 명제적 지식과 방법적 지식··················································· 121 
(3) 지식의 가능성과 전망··························································· 123 
5. 자연주의 인식론·········································································· 123 
6. 해석(학)적 인식론········································································ 129 
03 지식의 유형····················································································· 137 
1. 명제적 지식················································································· 137 
1.1 사실적 지식············································································ 137 
1.2 논리적 지식············································································ 139 
1.3 규범적 지식············································································ 141 
2. 방법적 지식················································································· 142 
2.1 경험적 지식············································································ 142 
2.2 선험적 지식············································································ 145 
2.3 과학적 지식············································································ 146 
2.4 소통적 지식············································································ 150 
2.5 반성․성찰적 지식································································· 153 
2.6 비판적 지식- 반성적 비판······················································· 155 
2.7 직관․각성적 지식································································· 157 
2.8 합리적 지식············································································ 159 
2.9 종교적 지식············································································ 160 
04 지식 개념의 성립············································································· 163 
1. 믿음주의····················································································· 163 
2. 이상주의····················································································· 165 
3. 경험주의····················································································· 169 
4. 합리주의····················································································· 172 
5. 자연주의····················································································· 173 
6. 실증주의····················································································· 175 
7. 실존주의····················································································· 177 
8. 실용주의····················································································· 179 
05 지식 개념의 한계와 전망·································································· 182 
1. 인식론적 오류············································································· 182 
2. 인식론적 반성············································································· 184 
3. 지식의 존재론············································································· 189 
II. 지식의 조건: 역사와 비판적 검토 
01 전통적 지식의 조건-플라톤의 JTB 계승········································· 203 
1. 신념조건····················································································· 205 
2. 진리조건····················································································· 207 
3. 정당성조건·················································································· 213 
02 ‘전통적 지식 조건’의 문제점과 한계성············································· 218 
1. 신념조건의 한계·········································································· 218 
2. 진리조건의 한계·········································································· 224 
3. ‘전통적’ 정당성조건의 한계························································· 228 
03 현대적 수정: 지식의 성립 조건························································ 232 
1. 정당성조건의 구체화··································································· 232 
1.1 증거조건: 근거의 합리성························································· 232 
1.2 존재론적 정합조건 ································································· 250 
2. 방법조건: 방법론적 다원주의······················································ 255 
2.1 경험적 방법············································································ 255 
2.2 이성적 방법············································································ 261 
2.3 논리적 방법············································································ 279 
2.4 분석적 방법············································································ 290 
2.5 비판적 방법············································································ 294 
3. 응용조건: 실용적 방법································································· 312 
III. 지식의 구조 
01 선형적 구조····················································································· 323 
02 비선형적 구조·················································································· 334 
1. 변증법적 차원············································································· 334 
2. 현상학적 차원············································································· 344 
3. 해석학적 차원············································································· 360 
3.1 해석학의 근원········································································· 360 
3.2 일반 해석학의 성립································································· 367 
3.3 정신과학으로서의 해석학······················································· 374 
3.4 존재론적 해석학····································································· 389 
4. 실(용)학적 차원··········································································· 410 
4.1 실학의 탄생············································································ 410 
4.2 실용주의 지식관····································································· 417 
(1) 실용주의의 근거: ‘유용성 지식’ ············································· 417 
(2) 실용주의의 산실: <형이상학클럽> ····································· 420 
(3) ‘전통적 인식론’의 확장으로서의 실용주의····························· 422 
(4) ‘인식’에 대한 실용주의적 접근 방법: ‘탐구’ ··························· 426 
(5) 로티의 신실용주의와 지식의 문제········································· 430 
(6) 지식의 실용학적 구조··························································· 433 
IV. 지식과 사회시스템 
01 원시공동체의 지식체계··································································· 441 
02 경제적 차원····················································································· 459 
1. 자본주의와 지식체계··································································· 459 
2. 공산주의와 지식체계··································································· 466 
03 정치적 차원····················································································· 482 
1. 독재주의와 지식체계··································································· 482 
1.1 신권사회와 지식····································································· 482 
1.2 절대국가시대의 지식······························································ 487 
1.3 제국주의시대의 지식······························································ 491 
1.4 독재파쇼사회의 지식······························································ 503 
2. 민주주의와 지식체계··································································· 511 
2.1 아테네 민주정의 지식····························································· 511 
2.2 현대민주주의 시대의 지식······················································ 521 
(1) 정치민주화와 지식································································ 521 
(2) 경제민주화와 지식································································ 527 
04 모던사회와 지식체제······································································· 534 
1. 과학지식의 발생사······································································ 534 
2. 근대성: 근대사회의 지식····························································· 548 
V. 포스트모던과 지식 
01 포스트모던의 지식논쟁··································································· 567 
1. 포스트모던지식의 형성조건························································ 567 
1.1 변증법적 지식 ········································································ 567 
1.2 관점의 지식 ··········································································· 569 
1.3 지식의 상대성········································································· 571 
2. 포스트모던의 지식관··································································· 573 
2.1 탈환원주의 과학지식······························································ 573 
2.2 탈경험주의 과학지식······························································ 581 
2.3 복잡시스템이론과 비선형적 복합지식····································· 584 
02 구성주의 지식관의 탄생·································································· 588 
1. 칸트의 ‘범주론’: 피아제의 ‘스키마이론’의 뿌리···························· 588 
2. 탈인식론으로서의 구성주의 ······················································· 598 
VI. 지식 탄생의 새로운 전망 
01 상상력의 지식: 테크놀로지······························································ 611 
02 생태학적 지식·················································································· 627 
1. 미래사회와 생태학적 패러다임···················································· 627 
2. 생태철학적 지식·········································································· 629 
03 노마디즘의 지식·············································································· 634 
1. 지식유목민(지식노마드)과 지식사회············································ 634 
2. 지식노마드와 학습노마디즘························································ 638 
04 지혜로서의 지식·············································································· 641 
에필로그 _ 649 
참고문헌 _ 662 
찾아보기 _ 682

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