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Human rights: universality and diversity

Human rights: universality and diversity (7회 대출)

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Brems, Eva.
서명 / 저자사항
Human rights: universality and diversity / by Eva Brems.
발행사항
The Hague ;   Boston :   Martinus Nijhoff ,   c2001.  
형태사항
xv, 574 p. ; 25 cm.
총서사항
International studies in human rights ; v. 66
ISBN
9041116184 (alk. paper)
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references (p. 517-559) and index.
일반주제명
Human rights -- Social aspects. Cultural relativism.
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082 0 0 ▼a 323 ▼2 21
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245 1 0 ▼a Human rights: ▼b universality and diversity / ▼c by Eva Brems.
260 ▼a The Hague ; ▼a Boston : ▼b Martinus Nijhoff , ▼c c2001.
300 ▼a xv, 574 p. ; ▼c 25 cm.
440 0 ▼a International studies in human rights ; ▼v v. 66
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references (p. 517-559) and index.
650 0 ▼a Human rights ▼x Social aspects.
650 0 ▼a Cultural relativism.

소장정보

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 중앙도서관/서고6층/ 청구기호 323 B836h 등록번호 111301491 도서상태 대출가능 반납예정일 예약 서비스 B M

컨텐츠정보

목차


CONTENTS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION = 1

PART ONE : Human Rights and the Universality Principle = 3

 Ⅰ. Universality Concepts = 3

  A. General and Would-wide Applicability of Human Rights : All-Inclusiveness = 4

  B. Formal Acceptance = 5

  C Historical Origin = 7

  D. Formal Origin : Norm Creation = 8

  E. Anthropological or Philosophical Acceptance = 9

  F. Functional Acceptance = 10

  G. Multicultural Composition of Human Rights = 10

  H. World-wide Observance of Human Rights = 12

  I. General Opposability of Human Rights = 12

  J. Human Rights as a Legitimate Concern of the International Community = 13

  K. Absence of Double Standards = 13

  L. Priority of Human Rights = 14

  M. Indivisibility of Human Rights = 14

  N. Uniformity of Standards = 14

  O. Universality in Time = 15

  P Universality as a Process = 15

  Q. Conclusion = 16

 Ⅱ. Brief History of the Universality of Human Rights = 17

  A. Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights = 17

  B. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Subsequent Evolution = 20

  C. Relativism = 23

PART TWO : An Analysis of Non-Western Human Rights Claims = 27

 Ⅰ. Introduction = 27

  A. Purpose = 27

  B. Selection of Material = 28

  C. Approach = 31

 Ⅱ. Asian Human Rights Claims = 33

  A. Introduction = 33

  B. Central Texts and Events = 35

   1. The Singapore School = 36

    1.1. Situation = 36

    1.2. General Discourse = 36

    1.3. The Economic Argument = 38

    1.4. The Vulnerability Argument = 40

    1.5. The Cultural Argument = 41

    1.6. Good Government = 46

   2. The Beijing White Papers = 50

    2.1. "China's Practice of Human Rights" = 50

    2.2. "China's Basic Position on Human Rights" = 51

   3. The Bangkok Declaration and the Vienna Conference = 55

    3.1. Situation = 55

    3.2. The Bangkok Declaration = 56

     3.2.1. Non-controversial Statements = 56

     3.2.2. Controversial Statements = 57

    3.3. The Vienna Conference = 59

     3.3.1. Statements = 59

      3.3.1.1. Singapore = 59

      3.3.1.2. Malaysia = 61

      3.3.1.3. China = 62

      3.3.1.4. Indonesia = 63

      3.3.1.5. Thailand = 64

      3.3.1.6. Myanmar = 65

      3.3.1.7. Philippines = 65

      3.3.1.8. (South) Korea = 66

      3.3.1.9. Japan = 66

     3.3.2. The Vienna Declaration = 67

      3.3.2.1. Sovereignty, Non-interference, Double Standards = 67

      3.3.2.2. Universality and Indivisibility = 67

      3.3.2.3. Development and Human Rights = 68

      3.3.2.4. Parts of the debate Not Mentioned = 69

    3.4. The Position of NGOs = 69

     3.4.1. Situation = 69

     3.4.2. Some Shared Concerns with the Governments = 70

      3.4.2.1. Universality = 71

      3.4.2.2. Indivisibility and Economic Concerns = 72

      3.4.2.3. The Individual and the Community = 72

     3.4.3. Some Points of Disagreement with the Governments = 72

      3.4.3.1. The Sovereignty Argument = 73

      3.4.3 2. The National Security Argument = 73

   4. Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Human Rights = 75

    4.1. Traditional Provisions = 75

    4.2. "Asian" Provisions = 76

  C. Interpretation = 80

   1. Framework = 80

   2. Main Claims = 83

    2.1. International Politics = 84

    2.2. Economics = 85

    2.3. The Individual, the Community and the State = 86

    2.4. Interpretation and Implementation = 87

   3. Attitude Towards the Universality of Human Rights = 88

    3.1. Universality and Respect for Diversity = 88

    3.2. The Role of Culture = 89

 Ⅲ. African Human Rights Views = 91

  A. Introduction = 91

  B. Central Texts and Events = 91

   1. Legal and Political Texts = 91

    1.1. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights = 92

     1.1.1. Universality and Specificity = 92

     1.1.2. Peoples' Rights = 95

      1.1.2.1. General Remarks = 95

       a) Originality of the African Charter = 95

       b) Justification = 96

       c) Beneficiaries and Enforcement = 99

       d) Peoples' Rights and Individual Rights = 100

      1.1.2.2. Overview of the Articles = 101

       a) Article 19 = 102

       b) Article 20 = 102

       c) Article 21 = 105

       d) Article 22 = 106

       e) Article 23 = 108

       f) Article 24 = 108

     1.1.3. Individual Duties = 109

      1.1.3.1. General Remarks = 109

       a) Originality of the African Charter = 109

       b) Justification = 110

       c) Beneficiaries and Enforcement = 112

       d) Individual Duties and Individual Rights = 113

      1.1.3.2. Overview of the Articles = 114

       a) Article 27 = 114

       b) Article 28 = 115

       c) Article 29 = 115

     1.1.4. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights = 118

     1.1.5. Limitation and Derogation = 121

      l.1.5.1. Limitation = 121

      1.1.5.2. Derogation = 125

     1.1.6. Choice and Formulation of Specific Rights = 126

      1.1.6.1. Omission of Rights = 126

      1.1.6.2. Inclusion and Formulation of Rights = 129

       a) Article 18 = 129

       b) Article 17(3) = 130

       c) Article 7(2) in fine = 130

       d) Article 13(1) = 131

       e) Article 14 = 131

     1.1.7 Enforcement Mechanism = 131

     1.1.8 Reception of the Charter = 133

     1.1.9 Evaluation = 135

    1.2. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child = 137

     1.2.1. Rights protected in both CRC and ACRWC = 138

     1.2.2. Rights protected only in the ACRWC, not in the CRC = 142

     1.2.3. Rights protected only in the CRC, not in the ACRWC = 144

     1.2.4. Evaluation = 144

    1.3. The Tunis Declaration = 148

   2. Academic Texts = 151

    2.1. Traditional Africa = 151

    2.2. Universality = 156

    2.3. Communalism = 162

    2.4. Development and Human Rights = 163

     2.4.1. Priority of Development over Human Rights = 164

     2.4.2. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights = 165

     2.4.3. Conditionality = 166

    2.5. Stability = 167

    2.6. Harmful Cultural Practices = 168

     2.6.1. General Remarks = 168

     2.6.2. The Example of Female Genital Mutilation = 170

      2.6.2.1. The Practice = 170

      2.6.2.2. The Western Campaign and the United Nations = 171

      2.6.2.3. African Views = 175

  C. Interpretation = 178

   1. Framework = 178

   2. Main Claims = 179

   3. Attitude Towards the Universality of Human Rights = 180

    3.1. Universality and Respect for Diversity = 180

    3.2.The Role of Culture = 181

 Ⅳ. Islam and Human Rights Views = 183

  A. Introduction = 183

  B. Central Texts and Events = 183

   1. Academic Texts = 184

    1.1 Fundamental Attitude : Different Tendencies = 184

     1.1.1. Apologetic literature = 185

      1.1.1.1. Common characteristics = 185

       a) General = 185

       b) Older and Better = 185

       c) The Rights = 187

      1.1.1.2. Subcategories = 191

       a) Attitude to "Thorny Issues" = 191

       b) Traditionalists and Fundamentalists = 191

     1.1.2. Appeals for Interpretation = 192

      1.1.2.1. Situating Ijtihad = 192

      1.1.2.2 Common Characteristics = 193

      1.1.2.3 Subcategories = 194

       a) Moderate Muslim Proposals = 194

       b) Radical Muslim Proposals = 196

       c) Non-Muslim Western Authors = 199

     1.1.3. Secularism = 199

    1.2. Recurring Themes = 201

     1.2.1. Universality = 201

      1.2.1.1. Rejection of Universality = 201

      1.2.1.2. Ambiguous Attitude Toward Universality in the Apologetic Discourse = 202

      1.2.1.3. Attitude Toward Universality Among Liberal Muslims = 203

     1.2.2. Individualism versus Communalism and Rights versus Duties = 204

      1.2.2.1. The relationship Between the Two Themes = 204

      1.2.2.2. Individualism v. Communalism = 204

       a) Individualism and Communalism in Islam = 204

       h) Consequences for Claims about Human Rights = 205

      1.2.2.3. Rights v. Duties = 206

       a) Rights and Duties in Islam = 206

       b) Consequences for Claims about Human Rights = 207

     1.2.3. The Religious Dimension = 207

     1.2.4. Areas of Conflict Between Islam and International Human Rights = 208

      1.2.4.1 Women's Rights = 208

      1.2.4.2 Freedom of Religion = 209

       a) The Problem = 209

       b) Solving the Problem = 210

      1.2.4.3 Discrimination on the Basis of Religion = 213

       a) The Problem = 213

       b) Denying or Minimising the Problem = 214

       c) Solving the Problem = 215

      1.2.4.4. Corporal Punishment = 216

       a) The Problem : Hudud Crimes = 216

       b) Solving the Problem = 217

      1.2.4.5. Slavery = 219

      1.2.4.6. Procedural Guarantees = 220

      1.2.4.7. Democratic Rights = 221

      1.2.4.8. Other = 222

    1.3. A Specific Genre : The Debate on Women in Islam = 222

     1.3.1. Fundamental Attitude : Different Tendencies = 223

      1.3.1.1. Apologetic literature = 223

      1.3.1.2. Feminists Appeals for Interpretation = 225

      1.3.1.3. Secularism = 228

     1.3.2. Recurring Themes = 228

      1.3.2.1. The Principle of Equality = 229

      1.3.2.2. Marriage = 230

       a) Choice of a Husband = 231

       b) Polygamy = 231

       c) Authority of the Husband = 232

      1.3.2.3. Divorce = 233

       a) Obtaining a Divorce = 233

       b) Custody = 234

       c) Maintenance = 235

      1.3.2.4. Inheritance = 236

      1.3.2.5. Testimony = 237

      1.3.2.6. Blood Money = 238

      1.3.2.7. Freedom of Movement / Hijab = 238

      1.3.2.8. Right to Work = 239

      1.3.2.9. Political Rights / Access to Public Functions = 240

   2. Islamic Declarations of Human Rights = 241

    2.1. Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights = 242

     2.1.1. Situation = 242

     2.1.2. Universality versus Particularity = 243

      2.1.2.1. Elements of Universality = 243

      2.1.2.2. Elements of Islamic Particularity = 243

     2.1.3. Individualism versus Communalism = 249

     2.1.4. Rights versus Duties = 251

     2.1.5. Restriction of Rights = 253

     2.1.6. Thorny Issues = 254

      2.1.6.1. Women = 254

      2.1.6.2 Religion = 256

      2.1.6.3. Other = 256

     2.1.7. General Appreciation = 258

    2.2. Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam = 259

     2.2.1. Situation = 259

     2.2.2. Universality versus Particularity = 259

     2.2.3. Individualism versus Communalism = 261

     2.2.4. Rights versus Duties = 262

     2.2.5. Restriction of Rights = 262

     2.2.6. Thorny Issues = 263

      2.2.6.1. Women = 263

      2.2.6.2. Religion = 264

      2.2.6.3. Other = 265

     2.2.7. General Appreciation = 266

   3. Islamic Reservations to Human Rights Conventions = 267

    3.1. General Remarks = 267

    3.2. Reservations of a General Nature = 271

    3.3. Specific Reservations = 274

     3.3.1. In the ICCPR and the ICESCR = 274

     3.3.2. In CEDAW = 275

     3.3.3. In the CRC = 278

    3.4. Evolution Over Time : Reservations as Statements in a Debate = 280

  C. Interpretation = 285

   1. Framework = 285

   2. Main Claims = 286

   3. Attitude Towards the Universality of Human Rights = 288

    3.1. Universality and Respect for Diversity = 288

    3.2. The Role of Culture = 290

 Ⅴ. Some Common Conclusions = 291

  A. Main Claims = 291

  B. Attitude Towards the Universality of Human Rights = 292

  C. Flexibility and Transformation = 292

PART THREE : Inclusive universality = 295

 Ⅰ. Introduction = 295

 Ⅱ. Upholding the Ideal of the Universality of Human Rights = 296

  A. Unconditional Universality = 296

   1.The Condition of General Formal Acceptance = 296

   2. The Condition of Mixed Cultural Origin or Composition = 297

   3. The Condition of Cross-Cultural Anthropological or Philosophical Foundations : of Mothers and Sisters = 300

    3.1. Mother-notions = 300

    3.2. Sister-notions = 302

    3.3. Evaluation = 304

  B. A Functional and Pragmatic Basis for Affirming Universality = 304

   1. A Functional Basis = 305

    1.1. The Universality of the Modern State = 305

    1.2. Human Suffering = 306

   2. A Pragmatic Basis = 307

 Ⅲ. Necessary Consequences of the Universality of Human Rights : Toward Inclusive Universality = 308

  A. General Formal Acceptance = 309

  B. Participation in Norm Creation = 309

  C. Absence of Double Standards = 310

  D. General Opposability = 310

  E. Indivisibility = 311

  F. Cross-Cultural Acceptance in Anthropological and Philosophical Terms = 311

  G. Accommodating Particularities = 314

   1. Transformation of Human Rights Standards = 315

   2. Flexibility of Human Rights Standards = 316

   3. Limits to the Accommodation of Particularities = 318

    3.1. Who Makes the Claim? = 318

    3.2. Thick and Thin Accounts of Human Rights : Gross Violations = 320

    3.3. Limits Inherent in the Concept of Inclusive Universality = 322

 Ⅳ. Further Marking Out Inclusive Universality = 323

  A. Methodological Implications = 323

  B. Comparison With Other Concepts = 324

   1. Minow's Relational and Contextual Approach = 324

   2. Taylor and Habermas : Recognising Cultural Identities = 328

   3 Kymlicka's Multiculturalism = 332

   4. Donnelly's Weak Cultural Relativism = 335

 Ⅴ. Summing Up = 338

PART FOUR : Legal Techniques for the Accommodation of Diversity = 341

 Ⅰ. Introduction = 341

 Ⅱ. Flexibility = 343

  A. Forum and Focus = 343

  B. Contextual Diversity in the Consideration of Human Rights Reports = 345

   1. "Factors and "Difficulties" = 346

    1.1. Types of Factors and Difficulties = 346

    1.2. Impact on the Committee's Evaluation = 349

   2. Progressive Realisation = 352

    2.1. In the ICESCR = 352

    2.2. In the CRC = 354

   3. Conclusion = 355

  C. Margin of Appreciation = 357

   1. Focus on Europe = 357

   2. The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine = 360

   3. One Doctrine, Several Techniques = 364

    3.1. Contextual Variations in the Balancing between Rights and Restriction Grounds = 365

     3.1.1. The Principle of Balancing : Individual versus Community = 365

     3.1.2. Balancing in Practice = 366

      3.1.2.1. The Weight of the Individual Right = 366

       a) The Importance of the Interest : Core Activities = 367

       b) The Seriousness of the Interference : "Substance" or "Essence" Criteria = 368

      3.1.2.2. The Weight of the Community Interest = 371

       a) Choice from Among the Enumerated Interests in a Limitation Clause = 371

       b) Policy Field = 373

        Ⅰ. Better Position of the National Authorities = 374

        Ⅱ. Economic and Social Policy = 376

        Ⅲ. Sovereignty-related Policy Fields = 377

        Ⅳ. Special Regimes = 378

     3.1.3. Balancing on the World Level = 380

    3.2. Contextual Variations in Solving Conflicts of Rights = 384

    3.3. Contextual Factors as Mitigating Circumstances for Interferences = 387

     3.3.1. Local Situations = 388

     3.3.2. Exceptional Situations = 389

    3.4. Organisational Latitude for the Concretisation of Rights in Different Contexts = 390

    3.5. Contextual Variability in the Interpretation of Vague or General Notions = 393

     3.5.1. Autonomous Interpretation = 394

     3.5.2. Evolutive Interpretation = 396

     3.5.3. Margin of Appreciation in the Interpretation of Vague or General Notions = 397

   4. Margin of Appreciation Criteria and Inclusive Universality = 400

    4.1. Democracy = 400

    4.2. Effectiveness = 405

    4.3. No "Gross Violations" = 407

     4.3.1. Core Rights? = 408

     4.3.2. The Core of a Right = 410

    4.4. The Consensus Criterion = 411

     4.4.1. The Consensus Criterion in the Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights = 412

      4.4.1.1. Comparison in Balancing = 412

      4.4.1.2. Comparison in Other Legal Techniques = 413

      4.4.1.3. Reference to Other Conventions = 414

      4.4.1.4. Internal Uncertainty or Dispute = 415

      4.4.1.5. Consensus and Evolution = 416

     4.4.2. The Consensus Criterion on the World Level = 418

      4.4.2.1. Problematic Aspects of the Consensus Criterion in General = 419

      4.4.2.2. Additional Problems on the World Level = 420

   5. Conclusion = 421

 Ⅲ. Transformation = 423

  A. Introduction = 423

  B. Duties = 424

   1. Types of Duties = 424

   2. Duties in International Human Rights Law = 425

    2.1. Human Rights Texts on the Universal Level = 425

     2.1.1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights = 426

     2.1.2. Other Texts = 427

    2.2. Regional Human Rights Texts = 429

     2.2.1. The European Convention on Human Rights = 429

     2.2.2. The Americas = 430

     2.2.3. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights = 431

     2.2.4. Asia = 431

   3. More Duties? = 432

    3.1. General Approach = 432

     3.1.1. Potential Benefits of More Duties = 432

     3.1.2. Avoiding Negative Effects of More Duties = 433

    3.2. Concrete Proposals = 434

     3.2.1. The Proposal of the InterAction Council = 434

      3.2.1.1. The Text = 435

      3.2.1.2. Evaluation = 438

     3.2.2. The Proposal of Karel Vasak = 439

      3.2.2.1. The Text = 439

      3.2.2.2. Evaluation = 440

  C. Economic and Social Rights and the Right to Development = 442

   1. Present International Law = 442

    1.1. Economic and Social Rights = 442

     1.1.1. A Distinct Category of Rights = 442

     1.1.2. Challenging the Categorization = 446

      1.1.2.1. Positive and Negative Obligations = 446

      1.1.2.2. Progressive or Immediate Realization = 447

      1.1.2.3. Justiciability = 447

      1.1.2.4. Recent Developments = 449

    1.2. The Right to Development = 450

     1.2.1. History and Legal Status = 450

     1.2.2. Specifics of the Right to Development = 453

      1.2.2.1. Subjects and Duty-Holders = 453

      1.2.2.2. Substance = 454

   2. Possible Changes = 457

    2.1.Trade-offs = 457

    2.2. Upgrading Economic and Social rights = 459

     2.2.1. Balancing Human Rights Evaluations = 460

     2.2.2. Strengthening Economic and Social Rights = 460

      2.2.2.1. Developing the Normative Content of Economic and Social Rights = 462

       a) Types of Obligations = 463

       b) Core and Margin = 464

       c) Types of Violations = 466

       d) Responsibility, Victims, Response = 468

       e) Reformulation = 468

      2.2.2.2. Improving Control over the Implementation of Economic and Social Rights = 469

       a) Indicators = 469

       b) Violations = 470

    2.3. Upgrading the Right to Development = 472

     2.3.1. Balancing Human Rights Evaluations = 472

     2.3.2. Strengthening the Right to Development = 473

      2.3.2.1. Developing the Normative Content of the Right to Development = 473

      2.3.2.2. Improving Control over the Implementation of the Right to Development = 474

  D. Collective Human Rights = 476

   1. Collective Rights in Present International Law = 476

    1.1. "Nationalist" Collective Human Rights = 477

    1.2. Other Collective Human Rights = 482

   2. Perspectives from Inclusive Universality = 485

    2.1. Basic Attitude = 485

     2.1.1. Collective Rights as Human Rights = 485

     2.1.2. Precautions = 488

    2.2. Increasing Attention for Collective Human Rights = 491

     2.2.1. More Collective Human Rights? = 491

     2.2.2. Normative Development and Implementation Mechanism = 492

 Ⅳ. Conclusion on Legal Techniques for the Accommodation of Diversity = 495

  A. General Remarks = 495

  B. Flexibility = 495

  C. Transformation = 501

  D. Toward Operationalisation = 506

GENERAL CONCLUSION = 509

 Ⅰ. Two Central Problems = 509

 Ⅱ. Deflating a Blown Up Debate = 509

 Ⅲ. Promoting Inclusive Universality of Human Rights = 511

 Ⅳ. Disarming Mala Fide Critics = 513

 Ⅴ. Suggestions for Further Research = 514

BIBLIOGRAPHY = 517

INDEX = 561



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