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Sports biomechanics : reducing injury and improving performance

Sports biomechanics : reducing injury and improving performance

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
Bartlett, Roger.
Title Statement
Sports biomechanics : reducing injury and improving performance / Roger Bartlett.
Publication, Distribution, etc
London ;   New York :   E FN Spon,   1999.  
Physical Medium
xiv, 276 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
0419184406
Bibliography, Etc. Note
Includes bibliographical referesnces and index.
Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
Sports -- Physiological aspects. Human mechanics. Sports injuries -- Prevention.
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001 000001094214
005 20030808134833
008 980514s1999 enka b 001 0 eng
020 ▼a 0419184406
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d DLC ▼d 244002
049 0 ▼l 151147784
050 0 0 ▼a RC1235 ▼b .B37 1999
082 0 0 ▼a 612.044 ▼2 21
090 ▼a 612.044 ▼b B291s
100 1 ▼a Bartlett, Roger.
245 1 0 ▼a Sports biomechanics : ▼b reducing injury and improving performance / ▼c Roger Bartlett.
260 ▼a London ; ▼a New York : ▼b E FN Spon, ▼c 1999.
300 ▼a xiv, 276 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 25 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical referesnces and index.
650 0 ▼a Sports ▼x Physiological aspects.
650 0 ▼a Human mechanics.
650 0 ▼a Sports injuries ▼x Prevention.

Holdings Information

No. Location Call Number Accession No. Availability Due Date Make a Reservation Service
No. 1 Location Sejong Academic Information Center/Science & Technology/ Call Number 612.044 B291s Accession No. 151147784 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Table of Contents


CONTENTS

Preface = xiii

Permissions = xv

Part One Biomechanics of Sprts Injury = 1

 Introduction = 1

 1 Causes of injury and the properties of materials = 3

  1.1 Causes of injury = 3

  1.2 Biological and other materials = 5

  1.3 response of a material to load = 6

   1.3.1 Stress and strain = 6

   1.3.2 Elastic modulus and related properties = 11

   1.3.3 Plasticity and strain energy = 12

   1.3.4 Toughness and crack prevention = 13

   1.3.5 Hardness = 14

   1.3.6 Creep = 14

   1.3.7 Fatigue failure = 14

   1.3.8 Non-homogeneity, anisotropy and viscoelasticity = 15

   1.3.9 Stress concentration = 17

  1.4 Bone = 17

   1.4.1 Structure and composition = 17

   1.4.2 Bone : loading and biomechanical properties = 18

  1.5 Cartilage = 20

   1.5.1 Structure and composition = 20

   1.5.2 Biomechanical properties = 20

  1.6 Muscle properties and behaviour = 21

   1.6.1 Muscle elasticity and contractility = 21

   1.6.2 Maximun force and muscle activation = 22

   1.6.3 Mechanical stiffness = 22

   1.6.4 The stretch-shortening cycle = 23

  1.7 Ligament and tendon properties = 24

  1.8 Factors affecting properties of biological tissue = 27

   1.8.1 Immobilisation and disuse = 27

   1.8.2 Age and sex = 27

   1.8.3 Exercise and training = 28

   1.8.4 Warm-up = 30

  1.9 summary = 31

  1.10 Exercises = 31

  1.11 References = 32

  1.12 Further reading = 35

 2 Injuries in sport : how the body behaves under load = 36

  2.1 Introduction = 36

  2.2 Bone injuries = 37

   2.2.1 Type of fracture = 37

   2.2.2 Magnitude of load = 40

   2.2.3 Load rate = 40

   2.2.4 Bone properties = 41

  2.3 Joint and soft tissue injuries = 42

   2.3.1 Articular cartilage = 42

   2.3.2 Ligaments = 42

   2.3.3 Muscle-tendon unit = 43

  2.4 Sports injuries to joints and associated tissues = 45

   2.4.1 The pelvis and the hip joint = 45

   2.4.2 The knee = 45

   2.4.3 The ankle and foot = 49

   2.4.4 The wrist and hand = 50

   2.4.5 The elbow = 51

   2.4.6 The shoulder = 53

   2.4.7 The head, back and neck = 53

  2.5 Genetic factors in sports injury = 56

   2.5.1 Sex, age and growth = 56

   2.5.2 Bony alignment = 57

  2.6 Fitness and training status and injury = 58

  2.7 Summary = 60

  2.8 Exercises = 61

  2.9 References = 61

  2.10 Further reading = 64

  Appendix 2.1 Musculoskeletal injury : some useful definitions = 65

 3 The effects of sports equipment and technique on injury = 67

  3.1 Sports surfaces = 67

   3.1.1 Introduction = 67

   3.1.2 Characteristics of sports surfaces = 68

   3.1.3 Specific sports surfaces = 70

   3.1.4 Biomechanical assessment of surfaces = 71

   3.1.5 Injury aspects of sports surfaces = 74

  3.2 Footwear : biomechanics and injury aspects = 76

   3.2.1 Introduction = 76

   3.2.2 Biomechanical requirements of a running shoe = 77

   3.2.3 The structure of a running shoe = 77

   3.2.4 Footwear and injury = 81

   3.2.5 Impact and the running shoe = 82

   3.2.6 Runing shoes and rearfoot control = 85

  3.3 Other sports and exercise equipment and injury = 87

   3.3.1 The head and neck = 88

   3.3.2 The upper extremity = 89

   3.3.3 The lower extremity = 90

   3.3.4 Alpine skiing : release bindings = 91

  3.4 Musculoskeletal injury - technique aspects = 91

   3.4.1 Introduction = 91

   3.4.2 The head and trunk = 92

   3.4.3 The upper extremity = 93

   3.4.4 The lower extremity = 97

  3.5 Summary = 99

  3.6 Exercises = 99

  3.7 References = 100

  3.8 Further rading = 104

  Appendix 3.1 Artificial surfaces = 105

  Appendix 3.2 Other surface characteristics = 108

 4 Calculating the loads = 109

  4.1 Introduction = 109

  4.2 Forces acting on a body segment in two dimensions = 110

   4.2.1 Static joint and muscle forces for a single segment witn one muscle = 110

   4.2.2 Dynamic joint and muscle forces for a single segment with one muscle = 112

   4.2.3 Assumptions underlying the above models = 115

   4.2.4 Forces acting on a body segment with more than one muscle - the indeterminacy problem = 116

   4.2.5 Planar joint reaction forces and moments for a single segment = 116

   4.2.6 Planar joint reaction forces and moments for segment chains = 119

   4.2.7 Joint reaction forces and moments in multiplesegment systems = 122

  4.3 Determination of muscle forces from inverse dynamics = 124

   4.3.1 Solving the indeterminacy(or redundancy) problem = 124

   4.3.2 Inverse optimisation = 125

   4.3.3 Use of EMG to estimate muscle force = 133

  4.4 Determination of ligament and bone forces = 134

  4.5 An example of the estimation of a load causing traumatic injury = 135

   4.5.1 Patellar ligament rupture = 135

   4.5.2 Concluding comments = 138

  4.6 Summary = 138

  4.7 Exercises = 138

  4.8 References = 141

  4.9 Further reading = 144

Part Two Biomechanical Improvement of Sports Performance = 147

 Introduction = 147

 5 Aspects of biomechanical analysis of sports performance = 149

  5.1 Principles of coordinated movement = 149

   5.1.1 How is movement controlled? = 150

   5.1.2 Structural analysis of movement = 152

  5.2 Biomechanical principles of coordinated movement = 153

   5.2.1 Universal principles = 154

   5.2.2 Principles of partial generality = 155

  5.3 temporal and phase analysis = 156

   5.3.1 Phase analysis of ballistic movements = 157

   5.3.2 Phase analysis of running = 159

   5.3.3 Phase analysis of other activities = 160

   5.3.4 Concluding comments = 161

  5.4 Kinesiological analysis of sports movements = 162

   5.4.1 An approach to kinesiological analysis = 162

   5.4.2 A formalised kinesiological analysis procedure = 163

   5.4.3 The analysis chart = 166

   5.4.4 Examples = 168

  5.5 Some limitations to kinesiological analysis = 168

   5.5.1 What muscles really do = 168

   5.5.2 Open and closed kinetic chains = 173

  5.6 Summary = 174

  5.7 Exercises = 174

  5.8 References = 176

  5.9 Further reading = 177

 6 Biomechanical optimisation of sports techniques = 178

  6.1 Introduction = 178

  6.2 The trial and error approach = 179

  6.3 Statistical modelling = 181

   6.3.1 Types of statistical model = 181

   6.3.2 Limitations of statistical modelling = 183

   6.3.3 Theory-based statistical modelling = 184

   6.3.4 Hierachical model of a vertical jump = 186

  6.4 Mathematical modelling = 189

   6.4.1 Simulation = 190

   6.4.2 Optimisation = 192

   6.4.3 Conclusions - future trends = 195

  6.5 Summary = 196

  6.6 Exercises = 196

  6.7 References = 198

  6.8 Further reading = 200

 7 Mathematical models of sports motions = 201

  7.1 Introduction = 201

  7.2 Optimal javelin release = 202

   7.2.1 The javelin flight model = 202

   7.2.2 Simulation = 204

   7.2.3 Optimisation = 205

   7.2.4 Sensitivity analysis = 205

   7.2.5 Simulation evaluation = 209

  7.3 Simple models of the sports performer = 210

   7.3.1 Introduction = 210

   7.3.2 The thrower model = 211

   7.3.3 Simulation, optimisation and sensitivity analysis = 213

   7.3.4 Simulation evaluation = 218

   7.3.5 Concluding comments = 220

  7.4 More complex models of the sports performer = 220

   7.4.1 Introduction = 220

   7.4.2 Linked segment models of aerial movement = 221

   7.4.3 Hanavan's human body model = 223

   7.4.4 hatze's anthropometric model = 226

   7.4.5 Yeadon's mathematical inertia model of the human body = 228

   7.4.6 Conclusions = 231

  7.5 Models of skeletal muscle = 231

   7.5.1 Introduction = 231

   7.5.2 The computed torque approach = 231

   7.5.3 Muscle models = 232

   7.5.4 A more comprehensive model of skeletal muscle = 234

   7.5.5 Evaluation and uses of Hatze's model of skeletal muscle = 236

   7.5.6 Concluding comments = 239

  7.6 Summary = 239

  7.7 Exercises = 240

  7.8 References = 241

  7.9 Further reading = 242

 8 Feedback of results to improve performance = 244

  8.1 The importance of feedback = 244

  8.2 Technique asessment models and their limitations in feedback = 247

   8.2.1 Live demonstrations = 248

   8.2.2 Serial recordings = 248

   8.2.3 Parallel representations = 248

   8.2.4 Textbook technique = 249

   8.2.5 Graphical(diagrammatic) models = 250

   8.2.6 computer simulation models = 251

   8.2.7 Analysis charts = 251

   8.2.8 Concluding comments = 252

  8.3 The role of technique training = 254

   8.3.1 Learning or relearning a technique = 255

   8.3.2 How to plan technique training = 257

  8.4 Information feedback and motor learning = 258

  8.5 Use of computer-based feedback = 260

   8.5.1 Overview = 260

   8.5.2 The uses of computer simulation and optimisation in feedback = 261

  8.6 Summary = 262

  8.7 Exercises = 262

  8.8 References = 263

  8.9 Further reading = 265

Author index = 267

Subject index = 271



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