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Culture's consequences : comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations 2nd ed

Culture's consequences : comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations 2nd ed (91회 대출)

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Hofstede, Geert H.
서명 / 저자사항
Culture's consequences : comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations / Geert Hofstede.
판사항
2nd ed.
발행사항
Thousand Oaks, Calif. :   Sage Publications ,   c2001.  
형태사항
xx, 596 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN
0803973233 0803973241 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
내용주기
Values and culture -- Data collection, treatment and validation -- Power distance -- Uncertainty avoidance -- Individualism and collectivism -- Masculinity and femininity -- Long- versus short- term orientation -- Cultures in organizations -- Intercultural encounters -- Using culture dimension scores in theory and research.
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references (p. 525-568) and indexes.
일반주제명
Ethnopsychology. National characteristics. Values -- Cross-cultural studies.
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245 1 0 ▼a Culture's consequences : ▼b comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations / ▼c Geert Hofstede.
250 ▼a 2nd ed.
260 ▼a Thousand Oaks, Calif. : ▼b Sage Publications , ▼c c2001.
300 ▼a xx, 596 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 26 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references (p. 525-568) and indexes.
505 0 0 ▼t Values and culture -- ▼t Data collection, treatment and validation -- ▼t Power distance -- ▼t Uncertainty avoidance -- ▼t Individualism and collectivism -- ▼t Masculinity and femininity -- ▼t Long- versus short- term orientation -- ▼t Cultures in organizations -- ▼t Intercultural encounters -- ▼t Using culture dimension scores in theory and research.
650 0 ▼a Ethnopsychology.
650 0 ▼a National characteristics.
650 0 ▼a Values ▼x Cross-cultural studies.
945 ▼a KINS

소장정보

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
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컨텐츠정보

저자소개

Geert Hofstede(지은이)

네덜란드 Groningen 대학교에서 사회심리학 박사학위를 취득하였으며, Maastricht 대학교에서 조직 인류학과 국제경영을 가르쳤다. 중국 Hong Kong 대학교의 명예교수 및 방문교수이고, 네덜란드 Tilburg 대학교 경제학 연구센터의 Extra-Mural Fellow로 일하고 있다. 그의 책은 19개국 언어로 번역되었으며, 논문들도 사회과학과 경영학 저널에 실려 있다.

정보제공 : Aladin

목차


CONTENTS

From the Preface to the First Edition(1980) = xv

Preface to the Second Edition = xvii

Summary of the Book = xix

1. Values and Culture = 1

 Summary of This Chapter = 1

 Definitions and Distinctions = 1

  Mental Programs = 1

  Describing Mental Programs in Measurable Terms = 4

  Values = 5

  Measuring Values = 7

  Culture = 9

  National Cultures and Their Stability = 11

  National Character and National Stereotypes = 13

  Cultural Relativism = 15

 Studying Culture = 15

  Comparing Cultures : Changing the Level of Analysis = 15

  Avoiding Ethnocentrism = 17

  The Need for a Multidisciplinary Approach = 19

  Language and Translation = 21

  Matching Samples : Functional Equivalence = 23

  Modal and Marginal Phenomena = 24

 Dimensions of Culture = 24

  The Specific and the General = 24

  Searching for Dimensions of Culture = 26

  Dimensions Versus Typologies = 28

  Five Basic Problems of National Societies = 28

  Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature : Theory Based = 29

  Other Dimensions of Culture in the Literature : Empirical = 31

 Culture Change = 34

  The Process of Culture Change = 34

  Culture Change and the IBM Data = 34

 Notes = 36

2. Data Collection, Treatment, and Validation = 41

 Summary of This Chapter = 41

 The Research Settings = 41

  The IBM Corporation = 41

  The Use of Attitude Surveys in IBM = 43

  Questionnaire Translation and Survey Administration = 46

  The IBM Survey Database = 48

  A Second Research Setting : IMEDE Business School = 49

 Data Treatment = 49

  Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency Within Groups = 49

  ANOVA : Country, Occupation, Gender, and Age = 50

  Comparing 40 Countries : Matching Occupations = 51

  Extension to 50 Countries P1us Three Regions = 52

  Selecting Stable Questions = 52

  Eclectic Analysis : Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance = 53

  Work Goal Importance Data : Eliminating Acquiescence = 56

  Work Goal Importance : Ecological Factor Analysis = 58

  Putting the Four Dimensions Together = 58

  Value Shifts in IBM Between l967 - 69 and 1971 - 73 = 60

  Correlations Between Index Scores = 60

  Country Clusters = 62

  Multilingual Countries : Belgium, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia = 63

 Validation = 65

  The Reliability of Country Dimension Scores = 65

  Replicating the IBM Research = 66

  Comparing With Data From Other Sources = 67

  Economic, Geographic, and Demographic Indicators = 68

  Adding a Fifth Dimension = 69

  Studying Organizational Cultures = 71

  Support and Criticisms of the Approach Followed = 73

 Notes = 73

3.Power Distance = 79

 Summary of This Chapter = 79

 Inequality and Power Distance = 79

  On Animal and Human Inequality = 79

  Inequality in Society = 80

  Inequality In Organizations = 82

  The Concept of Power Distance = 83

  Power Distance and Human Inequality = 84

 Measuring National Differences in Power Distance in IBM = 84

  Organization of Chapters 3 Through 7 = 84

  A Power Distance Index for IBM Countries = 85

  Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation = 88

  Gender Differences in Power Distance = 90

  Country Power Distance Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 90

 Validating PDI Against Data From Other Sources = 91

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 91

  PDI Versus Studies of General Values in Society = 92

  Summary of General Connotations of the Power Distance Index Found in Survey Material = 96

 Origins and Implications of Country Power Distance Differences = 97

  The Power Distance Societal Norm = 97

  Power Distance in the Family = 98

  Power Distance, Schools, and Educational Systems = 100

  Power Distance in Work and Organization = 102

  Power Distance, Worker Participation, and "Industrial Democracy" = 106

  Power Distance and Political Systems = 110

  Power Distance and Religion, Ideology, and Theories of Power = 113

  Power Distance and Aviation Safety = 115

  Predictors of PDI : Latitude, Population Size, and Wealth = 115

  Power Distance and Historical Factors : D'Iribarne's Contribution = 117

  Power Distance and Historical Factors : The Roman Empire and Colonialism = 119

  The Future of Power Distance Differences = 121

 Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter = 123

  Calculating the Power Distance Index by Country = 123

  Power Distance Index Scores by Occupation = 125

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 126

  Results of Other Survey Studies Significantly Correlated With PDI = 126

  Indexes at the National Level Significantly Correlated With PDI = 128

  PDI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators = 132

  Trends in PDI = 135

 Notes = 137

4. Uncertainty Avoidance = 145

 Summary of This Chapter = 145

 The Concept of Uncertainty Avoidance = 145

  Time, Future, Uncertainty, and Anxiety = 145

  Uncertainty Avoidance in Organizations = 146

  Uncertainty Avoidance Is Not the Same as Risk Avoidance = 148

 Measuring National Differences in Uncertainty Avoidance in IBM = 148

  An Uncertainty Avoidance Index for IBM Countries = 148

  Uncertainty Avoidance Versus Power Distance = 150

  Occupation and Gender Differences in the Scores on the Uncertainty Avoidance Items = 151

  Country UAI Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 153

 Validating UAI Against Data From Other Sources = 154

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 154

  UAI, Anxiety, and Emotions : Studies by Lynn and Others = 155

  UAI and Subjective Well-Being = 157

  UAI Versus Studies of General Values in Society = 158

  Summary of General Connotations of the Uncertainty Avoidance Index Found in Survey Material = 159

 Origins and Implications of Country Uncertainty Avoidance Differences = 159

  The Uncertainty Avoidance Societal Norm = 159

  Uncertainty Avoidance in the Family = 161

  Uncertainty Avoidance, Schools, and Educational Systems = 162

  UAI and Achievement Motivation : McClelland's Data = 163

  Uncertainty Avoidance in the Work Situation = 165

  Uncertainty Avoidance and Consumer Behavior = 170

  Uncertainty Avoidance and Political Systems = 171

  Uncertainty Avoidance and Legislation = 174

  Uncertainty Avoidance, Nationalism, and Xenophobia = 175

  Uncertainty Avoidance and Religions = 176

  Uncertainty Avoidance, Theories, and Games = 177

  Predictors of UAI = 179

  Uncertainty Avoidance and Historical Factors = 179

  The Future of Uncertainty Avoidance Differences = 181

 Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter = 183

  Calculating the Uncertainty Avoidance Index by Country = 183

  Calculating Differences in Item Scores by Occupation = 183

  Country UAI, Average Age of Respondents, and Other IBM Survey Questions = 184

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 186

  Studies of Stress and Well-Being = 188

  McClelland's Study of Motivation = 190

  Results of Other Surveys Correlated With UAI = 190

  Indexes at the National Level Correlated With UAI = 197

  UAI Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators = 198

  Trends in UAI = 198

 Notes = 199

5. Individualism and Collectivism = 209

 Summary of This Chapter = 209

 The Individual and the Collectivity = 209

  Individualism in Society = 209

  Individualism in Organizations and Organization Theories = 212

 Measuring National Differences in Individualism in IBM = 214

  An Individualism Index for Countries in the IBM Sample = 214

  Societal Versus Individual Individualism and Collectivism, and Whether Ind and Col Are One or Two Dimensions = 215

  Individualism Versus Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance = 216

  Individualism and Occupation, Gender, and Age = 218

  Country Individualism Index Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 218

 Validating IDV Against Data From Other Sources = 219

  Distinguishing IDV From PDI and GNP / Capita = 219

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 219

  IDV Versus Schwartz's Values Surveys of Teachers and Students = 220

  IDV Versus Smith and Dugan's Analysis of Trompenaars's Data = 221

  IDV Versus Inglehart's Analysis of the World Values Survey = 223

  IDV Scores and Other Studies of General Values = 224

  Summary of Value Connotations of the Individualism Index Found in Surveys and Related Material = 225

 Origins and Implications of Country Individualism Differences = 225

  The Individualism Societal Norm = 225

  Individualism and Collectivism in the Family = 225

  Individualism and Collectivism Versus Personality and Behavior = 231

  Individualism and Collectivism in Language Use and Group Identiry = 233

  Individualism and Collectivism, Schools, and Educational Systems = 234

  Individualism and Collectivism in the Work Situation = 235

  Collectivism and the Applicability of Management Methods = 240

  Individualism and Consumer Behavior = 241

  Health and Disability in Individualist and Collectivist Societies = 242

  Individualism or Collectivism, Political Systems, and Legislation = 243

  Individualism and Collectivism, Religions, and Ideas = 249

  Predictors of IDV : Wealth and Latitude = 250

  Individualism and Historical Factors = 253

  The Future of Individualism Differences = 254

 Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter = 255

  Calculating the Individualism Index by Country = 255

  Work Goal Dimensions by Occupation = 257

  Country IDV Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 258

  Earlier Studies of Work Goals in IBM = 258

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 260

  Results of Other Surveys Correlated With IDV = 264

  Indexes at the National Level Correlated With IDV = 268

  IDV Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators = 269

  Trends in IDV = 272

 Notes = 273

6. Masculinity and Femininity = 279

 Summary of This Chapter = 279

 Sexes, Genders, and Gender Roles = 279

  Absolute, Statistical, and Social Sex Differences = 279

  Gender Differences in Work Goals = 281

 Measuring National Differences in Masculinity in IBM = 284

  A Masculinity Index for Countries in the IBM Sample = 284

  Masculinity and Occupation, Gender, and Age = 285

  Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 290

  MAS and Work Centrality in IBM = 291

  Societal Versus Individual Masculinity and Femininity, and Whether Mas and Fem Are One or Two Dimensions = 292

  Masculinity Versus Individualism = 293

 Validating MAS Against Data From Other Sources = 294

  The Need to Control for Wealth Differences = 294

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 295

  MAS Scores Versus Other Values Surveys = 296

  Summary of Connotations of the Masculinity Index Found in Surveys and Related Material = 297

 Origins and Implications of Country Masculinity Differences = 297

  The Masculinity Societal Norm = 297

  Masculinity and Femininity in the Family = 298

  Masculinity, Schools, and Educational Systems = 303

  Masculinity and Femininity in Gender Roles = 305

  Masculinity and Consumer Behavior = 310

  Masculinity and Femininity in the Workplace = 311

  Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Priorities = 317

  Masculinity, Femininity, and Political Mores = 321

  Masculinity and Sexual Behavior = 322

  Masculinity, Femininity, and Religion = 327

  Masculinity and Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Factors = 331

  Masculinity and (Pre)Historical Factors = 331

  The Future of Masculinity / Femininity Differences = 333

 Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter = 335

  Computing MAS for Old and New Cases = 335

  Country MAS Scores and Other IBM Survey Questions = 335

  Straight Replications of the IBM Survey = 335

  Results of Other Studies Correlated With MAS = 337

  MAS Versus Eight Geographic, Economic, and Demographic Indicators = 339

  Trends in MAS = 340

 Notes = 341

7. Long - Versus Short-Term Orientation = 351

 Summary of This Chapter = 351

 East Versus West = 351

  Cultural Biases in the Researchers' Minds = 351

  The Chinese Value Survey = 352

  Long-Term Orientation as a Fifth Dimension = 353

 Measuring and Validating National Differences in Long-Term Orientation = 355

  A Long-Term Orientation Index for 23 Countries = 355

  Replications of the Measurement of Long-Term Orientation = 355

  Validating LTO Against Other Studies 0f Values = 355

  LTO and Savings Rates : Read's Study = 358

  Summary of Validations and Connotations of the Long-Term Orientation Index Found in Surveys and Related Material = 359

 Implications of Country Long-Term Orientation Differences = 359

  LTO and Family, Social Relationships, and Work = 359

  LTO and Ways of Thinking = 362

  LTO and Economic Growth = 365

  Long - and Short-Term Orientation in the Hindu and Muslim Worlds = 368

  African Values : A New Dimension = 369

  The Future of Long - Term Orientation = 370

 Notes = 370

8. Cultures in Organizations = 373

 Summary of This Chapter = 373

 Organizations and National Cultures = 373

  There Are No Universal Solutions to Organization and Management Problems = 373

  The Functioning of Organizations = 375

  Culture and Organization Theories : Nationality Constrains Rationality = 378

  Planning, Control, and Accounting = 381

  Corporate Governance = 384

  Motivation and Compensation = 385

  Leadership and Empowerment = 388

  Management Development and Organization Development = 390

  Performance Appraisal and Management by Objectives = 391

 Organizational Cultures = 391

  The "Organizational Culture" Construct = 391

  Differences Between Organizational and National Cultures = 393

  The IRIC Organizational Culture Research Project = 395

  Dimensions of Organizational Cultures = 397

  Validating the Practice Dimensions = 400

  Organizational Subcultures = 405

  The Usefulness of the Organizational Culture Construct = 408

  How Universal Are the Six Organizational Culture Dimensions? = 410

  Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures = 411

  Implications of the Level of Analysis : Gardens, Bouquets, and Flowers = 413

  Occupational Cultures = 414

 Notes = 415

9. Intercultural Encounters = 423

 Summary of This Chapter = 423

 Intercultural Communication and Cooperation = 423

  General Principles = 423

  Language and Discourse = 425

  Culture Shock and Expatriate Failure = 425

  Training in Intercultural Competence = 427

 Political Issues = 429

  Minorities, Migrants, and Refugees = 429

  International Politics and International Organizations = 431

  Intercultural Negotiations = 435

  Economic Development, Nondevelopment, and Development Cooperation = 437

 Multinational Business = 440

  The Functioning of Multinational Business Organizations = 440

  International Acquisitions, Mergers, and Joint Ventures = 445

  International Marketing, Advertising, and Consumer Behavior = 448

 Schools, Tourism, and a Look Ahead = 451

  Intercultural Encounters in Schools = 451

  Intercultural Encounters in Tourism = 452

  The Influence of New Technology = 453

  Cultural Relativism, Convergence, and Divergence = 453

 Notes = 454

10. Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research = 461

 Summary of This Chapter = 461

 Applications of the Dimensional Model = 461

  The Fortunes of Continued Research in Six Areas = 461

  Fields of Application = 462

  Replications and Their Pitfalls = 463

  Extensions to New Countries = 464

  Using the Dimensional Model as a Paradigm = 465

 Closing Remarks = 466

 Notes = 466

Appendixes

 Appendix 1 Questions From the IBM Attitude Survey Questionnaire Referred to in This Book = 467

 Appendix 2 Country Scores on A, B, and C Questions(except A5 - A32 and C1 - C8) = 475

 Appendix 3 Standardized Country and Occupation Scores for Work Goals(questions A5 - l8 and C1 - C8) = 483

 Appendix 4 Replicating the IBM-Style Cross-National Survey = 491

 Appendix 5 Summary of Country Index Scores(including additions) = 499

 Appendix 6 Summary of Significant Correlations of Country Index Scores With Data From Other Sources = 503

 Appendix 7 Two Case Studies From the IRIC Organizational Cultures Research Project = 521

 Appendix 8 The Author's Values = 523

References = 525

Name Index = 569

Subject Index = 585

About the Author = 596



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