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Thinking and problem solving

Thinking and problem solving (17회 대출)

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Sternberg, Robert J.
서명 / 저자사항
Thinking and problem solving / edited by Robert J. Sternberg.
발행사항
San Diego :   Academic Press ,   c1994.  
형태사항
xix, 461 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
총서사항
Handbook of perception and cognition (2nd ed.)
ISBN
0121619524 (acid-free paper) 0126672601
내용주기
History of research on thinking and problem solving / Roger L. Dominowski and Lyle E. Bourne, Jr. -- Contemporary approaches to the study of thinking and problem solving / K. Anders Ericsson and Reid Hastie -- Knowledge representation / Timothy P. McNamara -- Concepts and categories / Brian H. Ross and Thomas L. Spalding -- Deduction and its cognitive basis / Lance J. Rips -- Inductive reasoning / Jeffrey Bisanz, Gay L. Bisanz, and Connie A. Korpan -- Problem solving / Earl Hunt -- Language and thought / Richard J. Gerrig and Mahzarin R. Banaji -- Intelligence / Robert J. Sternberg -- Creativity / Todd I. Lubart -- Development of problem solving / Shari Ellis and Robert S. Siegler -- Cultural dimensions of cognition : a multiplex, dynamic system of constraints and possibilities / Robert Serpell and A. Wade Boykin -- The teaching of thinking and problem solving / Raymond S. Nickerson.
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references and index.
일반주제명
Thought and thinking. Problem solving.
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005 20000816113555
008 940217s1994 caua b 001 0 eng
010 ▼a 94004844 //r95
020 ▼a 0121619524 (acid-free paper)
020 ▼a 0126672601
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d PMC ▼d 211009
049 ▼l 111163428
050 0 0 ▼a BF441 ▼b .T465 1994
082 0 0 ▼a 153.4/2 ▼2 20
090 ▼a 153.42 ▼b T443
245 0 0 ▼a Thinking and problem solving / ▼c edited by Robert J. Sternberg.
260 ▼a San Diego : ▼b Academic Press , ▼c c1994.
300 ▼a xix, 461 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 24 cm.
440 0 ▼a Handbook of perception and cognition (2nd ed.)
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and index.
505 0 ▼a History of research on thinking and problem solving / Roger L. Dominowski and Lyle E. Bourne, Jr. -- Contemporary approaches to the study of thinking and problem solving / K. Anders Ericsson and Reid Hastie -- Knowledge representation / Timothy P. McNamara -- Concepts and categories / Brian H. Ross and Thomas L. Spalding -- Deduction and its cognitive basis / Lance J. Rips -- Inductive reasoning / Jeffrey Bisanz, Gay L. Bisanz, and Connie A. Korpan -- Problem solving / Earl Hunt -- Language and thought / Richard J. Gerrig and Mahzarin R. Banaji -- Intelligence / Robert J. Sternberg -- Creativity / Todd I. Lubart -- Development of problem solving / Shari Ellis and Robert S. Siegler -- Cultural dimensions of cognition : a multiplex, dynamic system of constraints and possibilities / Robert Serpell and A. Wade Boykin -- The teaching of thinking and problem solving / Raymond S. Nickerson.
650 0 ▼a Thought and thinking.
650 0 ▼a Problem solving.
700 1 ▼a Sternberg, Robert J.
950 1 ▼b US$ 39.95

소장정보

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 중앙도서관/서고6층/ 청구기호 153.42 T443 등록번호 111163428 도서상태 대출가능 반납예정일 예약 서비스 B M

컨텐츠정보

저자소개

로버트 스턴버그(엮은이)

2012년 현재 오클라호마주립대학교의 학장이자 수석 부총장으로 재직 중이다. 예일대학교 심리학과 교수였고, 2005~2010년까지 터프츠대학교 예술과학대학 학장으로 재임했다. 지금까지 900편이 넘는 논문을 발표했으며, 미국 심리학회 회장을 역임하였다. 스턴버그는 주로 지능과 인지발달을 연구했다. 성공지능이론과 창의성에 관한 투자이론, 정신자치이론, 사랑에 관한 삼각이론으로 유명하다. 터프츠대학교에 있을 때 컬라이더스코프라는 대안적 입시를 기획하고 실행하기도 하였다.

정보제공 : Aladin

목차


CONTENTS
Contributors = xii
Foreword = xv
Preface = xvii
1 History of Research on Thinking and Problem Solving / Roger L. Dominowski ; Lyle E. Bourne, Jr.
 I. Major Antecedents of the Science of Psychology = 1
  A. Associationism = 2
  B. Faculties of the Mind = 4
 II. An Experimental Psychology of Thinking = 5
  A. Thinking According to Wundt = 5
  B. Thinking According to Ebbinghaus = 7
 III. Later Developments = 8
  A. Act Psychology = 8
  B. Early British Psychology = 11
 IV. The Psychology of Thinking in America = 12
  A. William James = 12
  B. Functionalism = 13
  C. Later Functionalism = 14
  D. Behaviorism = 15
  E. Gestalt Psychology = 16
 V. Thinking Research to 1960 = 18
  A. Research on Concepts = 18
  B. Research on Problem Solving = 23
  C. Research on Reasoning = 30
 VI. Transition to the New Cognitive Era = 32
 References = 33
2 Contemporary Approaches to the Study of Thinking and Problem Solving / K. Anders Ericsson ; Reid Hastie
 I. Introduction = 37
 II. A Brief History of the Study of Thinking = 39
  A. Prescientific and Philosophical Accounts of Thinking = 39
  B. Early Laboratory Studies on Sensation and Thinking = 41
  C. From Conscious Experience to Performance = 43
 III. The Information-Processing Account of Thinking = 45
  Some Issues in Research on Information Processing = 48
 IV. The Relation between the Study of Thinking in the Laboratory and in Everyday Life = 52
  A. The Quest for General Processes = 53
  B. Capturing Everyday Phenomena in Laboratory Tasks = 56
  C. Differences in Knowledge and Skill = 58
 V. The Acquisition of Complex Knowledge and Skills = 63
  A. Learning of Different Types of Performance = 64
  B. Activities Relevant to Everyday Skill Acquisition = 66
 VI. Summary and Conclusions = 69
 References = 72
3 Knowledge Representation / Timothy P. McNamara
 I. The Nature of Knowledge Representations = 83
  A. What Are Mental Representations and Why Are They Necessary? = 83
  B. Can Knowledge Representations Be Distinguished? = 84
  C. A Taxonomy = 86
 II. Simple Knowledge Representations = 90
  A. Analogical Knowledge Representations = 90
  B. Symbolic Knowledge Representations = 97
  C. Procedural Knowledge Representations = 104
 III. Complex Knowledge Representations = 107
  A. Schemata = 107
  B. Cognitive Maps = 108
  C. Mental Models = 109
 IV. Connectionist Models = 110
 V. Summary and Prospectus = 112
 References = 113
4 Concepts and Categories / Brian H. Ross ; Thomas L. Spalding
 I. Introduction = 119
  A. Definition of Concepts and Categories = 120
  B. Functions of Categories = 120
 II. How Do People Classify? = 122
  A. The Classical View = 122
  B. The Probabilistic View = 123
  C. The Exemplar View = 125
  D. Mixed Models = 127
 III. Problems for All Models of Classification = 128
  A. Between-Concept Relations: Basic Levels = 129
  B. Classification Disconnected from Other Uses of Concepts = 132
  C. Difficulties for Classification: Features and Similarity = 134
  D. Summary = 135
 IV. Theory-Based Conceptual Knowledge = 135
  A. The Theory-Based View = 137
  B. What Do We Gain? = 139
  C. Problems with the Theory View = 140
 V. Current Directions = 141
  A. Classification = 141
  B. Inference = 141
  C. Conceptual Combinations = 143
  D. More Radical Extensions = 144
 VI. Concluding Remarks = 145
 References = 145
5 Deduction and Its Cognitive Basis / Lance J. Rips
 I. What Accounts for Elementary Inference? = 150
 II. Inference Rules and Logical Form = 151
 III. Instrumental Theories = 153
  A. Two Qualifications = 154
  B. Experimental Implications = 156
 IV. Pattern Processing Theories: Diagrammatic and Connectionist Accounts = 159
  A. Diagrammatic Theories = 160
  B. Connectionist Theories = 167
 V. What Is Behind Deduction Ability? = 173
 References = 177
6 Inductive Reasoning / Jeffery Bisanz ; Gay L. Bisanz ; Connie A. Korpan
 I. Characteristics of Induction = 181
 II. A Cognitive-Components Approach = 183
  A. Identifying Processes and Representations = 185
  B. An Integrative Theory = 191
  C. Summary and Evaluation = 195
 III. A Pragmatic Approach = 196
  A. Research on Statistical Reasoning = 199
  B. Conclusions and Evaluation = 205
 IV. Conclusions = 208
 References = 210
7 Problem Solving / Earl Hunt
 I. Introduction = 215
 II. From Intuitions to Problem Spaces = 216
 III. Historical and Modern Approaches to the Study of Thought: From Aristotle's Syllogisms to Programs for Thinking = 217
 IV. Problem Solving as Searching through a Knowledge Space = 220
 V. Pattern-Action Rules and Human Problem Solving = 222
 VI. Limitations on Representations Introduced by Immediate Memory = 224
 VII. Means-End Analysis: Backward and Forward Problem Solving = 225
 VIII. Schematic Reasoning and General Problem Solving = 227
 IX. Applied Reasoning: The Ideal Problem Solver and How It Can Be Approximated = 229
 X. Conclusion: Understanding Human Problem Solving and Problem Representations = 230
 References = 231
8 Language and Thought / Richard J. Gerrig ; Mahzarin R. Banaji
 I. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Revisited = 235
  A. Color Memory = 237
  B. Counterfactual Constructions and Reasoning = 239
  C. Concept Labels and Cognition = 242
 II. Conceptual Metaphors = 245
  A. The Influence of Thought on Metaphorical Language = 246
  B. The Influence of Metaphorical Language on Thought = 249
 III. Language Acquisition = 252
  A. The Influence of Cognitive Development on Language Acquisition = 252
  B. The Influence of Language Acquisition on Cognitive Development = 253
  C. Bilingualism = 256
 IV. Conclusions = 257
 References = 258
9 Intelligence / Robert J. Sternberg
 I. Biological Approaches to Intelligence = 266
  A. Global Theories of Brain and Intelligence = 266
  B. Nerve Conduction Velocity = 267
  C. Hemispheric Specialization = 269
  D. Brain Size = 270
  E. Brain Activity = 270
 II. Cognitive Approaches = 272
  A. Historical Approaches = 272
  B. The Cognitive-Correlates Approach = 273
  C. The Cognitive-Components Approach = 274
  D. Artificial-Intelligence Approaches = 276
 III. Contextual Approaches to Intelligence = 278
 IV. The Systems Approach = 280
  A. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences = 281
  B. The Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence = 281
 V. Conclusion = 282
 References = 283
10 Creativity / Todd I. Lubart
 I. The Basic Phenomenon: Descriptive Issues = 290
  A. Definition of Creativity = 290
  B. Distribution of Creativity = 293
  C. Domain Specifidty = 293
 II. The Source of Creativity = 294
  A. An Overview of Alternative Conceptions = 294
  B. Components of Creaticity = 301
 III. The Creative Process = 314
  A. Different Theoretical Positions on the Creative Process = 314
  B. The Four-Stage Creative Process Model: A Case Study = 316
 IV. Techniques for Measuring Creativity = 318
  A. Cognitive Abilities Test = 318
  B. Personality Inventories = 320
  C. Biographical Inventories = 320
  D. Attitude and Interest Surveys = 321
  E. Person-Centered Ratings by Teachers, Peers, and Supervisors = 321
  F. Eminence = 321
  G. Self-Reports of Achievements = 322
  H. Judgments of Work Samples = 322
 V. Summary and Conclusions = 323
 References = 323
11 Development of Problem Solving / Shari Ellis ; Robert S. Siegler
 I. The Early Development of Problem Solving = 334
  A. Strategic Development = 334
  B. Representational Development in the Toddler Period = 337
  C. Self-Regulation in Preschooler's Problem Solving = 341
 II. Development of Problem Solving in Later Childhood = 345
  A. Strategic Development = 345
  B. Representational Development = 349
  C. Self-Regulation = 354
 III. Conclusions = 360
 References = 363
12 Cultural Dimensions of Cognition: A Multiplex, Dynamic System of Constraints and Possibilities / Robert Serpell ; A. Wade Boykin
 I. Introduction = 369
 II. Dimensions of Cognition Amenable to Cultural Influence = 373
  A. Knowledge Base = 373
  B. Structural Organization = 375
  C. Hierarchy of Values = 377
  D. Pragmatic Focus = 378
 III. Conceptualizations of Cultural Context = 379
  A. Relationships, Practices, and Meanings = 379
  B. Appropriation of Cultural Resources = 381
  C. The Nature of Cultural Integrity = 381
  D. The Significance of History = 383
 IV. A Blind Spot in American Psychology = 385
 V. Cognition and Schooling in Low-Income African-American Communities: Empirical Studies = 389
 VI. The Significance of Schooling in a Rural African Neighborhood: A Case Study = 392
 VII. Processes of Bicultural Mediation = 396
 VIII. Implications for Educational Practice = 400
 References = 403
13 The Teaching of Thinking and Problem Solving / Raymond S. Nickerson
 I. Introduction = 409
 II. The Need to Teach Thinking and Problem Solving = 410
 III. Interest in the Teaching of Thinking and Problem Solving = 411
 IV. Why the Interest in Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving? = 413
 V. Foci of Efforts to Teach Thinking and Problem Solving = 414
  A. Basic Operations or Processes = 415
  B. Domain-Specific Knowledge = 415
  C. Knowledge of Normative Principles of Reasoning = 416
  D. Knowledge of Informal Principles and Tools of Thought = 418
  E. Metacognitive Knowledge = 419
  F. Attitudes, Dispositions, Values, and Styles = 420
  G. Beliefs = 420
  H. Interdependence of Factors = 421
 VI. Theories, Models, and Conceptual Frameworks = 422
 VII. Stepwise Conceptions of Problem Solving = 424
 VIII. Problem-Solving Methods and Strategies = 425
  A. Problem Decomposition or Subgoaling = 425
  B. Working Backwards = 426
  C. Hill Climbing = 426
  D. Means-End Analysis = 427
  E. Forward Chaining = 427
  F. Considering Analogous Problems = 428
  G. Specialization and Generalization = 428
  H. Considering Extreme Cases = 429
  I. Mixing Strategies = 430
 IX. Representation = 430
 X. Evaluation = 434
 XI. The Question of Transfer = 436
 XII. Practicalities of Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving = 438
 XIII. Cognitive Research and the Practice of Teaching = 439
 XIV. Concluding Comments = 440
 References = 441
Index = 451


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