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Focus group kit

Focus group kit (Loan 47 times)

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
Morgan, David L. Krueger, Richard A. King, Jean A.
Title Statement
Focus group kit.
Publication, Distribution, etc
Thousand Oaks, Calif. :   SAGE Publications ,   c1998.  
Physical Medium
6 v. : ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN
0761907602 (set : alk. paper) 0761908188 (v.1 pbk.) 076190817x (v.2 pbk.) 0761908196 (v.3 pbk.) 0761908218 (v.4 pbk.) 076190820x (v.5 pbk.) 0761908161 (v.6 pbk.)
Content Notes
1. focus group guidebook David L. Morgan -- 2. Planning focus groups David L. Morgan with Alice U. Scannell -- 3. Developing questions for focus groups Richard A. Krueger -- 4. Moderating focus groups Richard A. Krueger -- 5. Involving community members in focus groups Richard A. Krueger, Jean A. King -- 6. Analyzing reporting focus group results Richard A. Krueger.
Bibliography, Etc. Note
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
Focused group interviewing. Focus Groups.
000 01470camuuu200349 a 4500
001 000000632902
005 19990331135011
008 970618s1998 caua b 001 0 eng
010 ▼a 97021135
020 ▼a 0761907602 (set : alk. paper)
020 ▼a 0761908188 (v.1 pbk.)
020 ▼a 076190817x (v.2 pbk.)
020 ▼a 0761908196 (v.3 pbk.)
020 ▼a 0761908218 (v.4 pbk.)
020 ▼a 076190820x (v.5 pbk.)
020 ▼a 0761908161 (v.6 pbk.)
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d WSM ▼d 211009
049 ▼l 111126710 ▼v 1 ▼l 111126711 ▼v 2 ▼l 111126712 ▼v 3 ▼l 111126713 ▼v 4 ▼l 111126714 ▼v 5 ▼l 111126715 ▼v 6
050 0 0 ▼a H61.28 ▼b .F63 1998
082 0 0 ▼a 001.4/33 ▼2 21
090 ▼a 001.433 ▼b F652
245 0 0 ▼a Focus group kit.
260 ▼a Thousand Oaks, Calif. : ▼b SAGE Publications , ▼c c1998.
300 ▼a 6 v. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 26 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
505 0 0 ▼g 1. ▼t focus group guidebook ▼r David L. Morgan -- ▼g 2. ▼t Planning focus groups ▼r David L. Morgan with Alice U. Scannell -- ▼g 3. ▼t Developing questions for focus groups ▼r Richard A. Krueger -- ▼g 4. ▼t Moderating focus groups ▼r Richard A. Krueger -- ▼g 5. ▼t Involving community members in focus groups ▼r Richard A. Krueger, Jean A. King -- ▼g 6. ▼t Analyzing reporting focus group results ▼r Richard A. Krueger.
650 0 ▼a Focused group interviewing.
650 2 ▼a Focus Groups.
700 1 ▼a Morgan, David L.
700 1 ▼a Krueger, Richard A.
700 1 ▼a King, Jean A.

Holdings Information

No. Location Call Number Accession No. Availability Due Date Make a Reservation Service
No. 1 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 1 Accession No. 111126710 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 2 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 2 Accession No. 111126711 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 3 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 3 Accession No. 111126712 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 4 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 4 Accession No. 111126713 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 5 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 5 Accession No. 111126714 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 6 Location Main Library/Western Books/ Call Number 001.433 F652 6 Accession No. 111126715 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Table of Contents


[volume. vol.1]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = ⅸ
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xi
1. About This Book = 1
 An Introduction to Focus Groups = 1
 First Encounters With Focus Groups = 4
2. Why Should You Use Focus Groups? = 9
 Listening and Learning = 9
 Strengths of Qualitative Data = 11
 Projects That Use Focus Groups = 13
  Problem Identification = 13
  Planning = 14
  Implementation = 14
  Assessment = 15
3. Focus Groups in Use : Six Case Studies = 17
 Case 1 : Designing a First Effort at Quality Improvement = 18
 Case 2 : Evaluating a Training Center = 19
 Case 3 : Assessing Community Needs = 20
 Case 4 : Creating an Educational Booklet = 22
 Case 5 : Generating Items for a Survey Questionnaire = 24
 Case 6 : Anticipating Responses to a Major Change = 25
4. What Focus Groups Are (and Are Not) = 29
 Focus Groups Are a Research Method = 29
 Focus Groups Are Focused = 31
 Focus Groups Use Group Discussions = 32
 A Few Things That Are Not Focus Groups = 33
5. A Capsule History of Focus Groups = 37
 Social Science Origins = 37
 The Move to Marketing = 39
 A Widespread Research Method = 40
 The Future of Focus Groups = 43
6. Some Myths About Focus Groups = 45
 Focus Groups Are Low-Cost and Quick = 46
 Focus Groups Require Professional Moderators = 47
 Focus Groups Require Special Facilities = 48
 Focus Groups Must Consist of Strangers = 49
 Focus Groups Will Not Work for Sensitive Topics = 49
 Focus Groups Produce Conformity = 50
 Focus Groups Must Be Validated by Other Methods = 51
 Focus Groups Tell You How People Will Behave = 52
 Some Beliefs That Should Be Encouraged = 52
7. What Do You Get From Focus Groups? = 55
 Reasonable Expectations = 55
 Appropriate Uses for Focus Groups = 57
  Consider Focus Groups When There Is a Gap Between People = 57
  Consider Focus Groups When Investigating Complex Behaviors and Motivations = 58
  Consider Focus Groups When You Want to Understand Diversity = 59
  Consider Focus Groups When You Need a Friendly, Respectful Research Method = 59
 Inappropriate Uses for Focus Groups = 60
  Avoid Focus Groups When They Imply Commitments You Cannot Keep = 60
  Avoid Focus Groups If the Participants Are Not Comfortable With Each Other = 61
  Avoid Focus Groups When the Topic Is Not Appropriate for the Participants = 61
  Avoid Focus Groups When a Project Requires Statistical Data = 62
8. Resources Required to Do Focus Groups = 65
 Planning = 66
 Recruiting = 67
 Moderating = 68
 Analyzing and Reporting = 69
 Other Costs = 71
9. It's All About Relationships : Working Together = 75
 Sponsors = 76
  Relationships Between Sponsors and Researchers = 76
  The Relationship Between the Sponsor and the Participants = 78
 Researchers = 81
 Participants = 81
10. Ethical Issues = 85
 Are Participants "At Risk?" = 85
 Privacy : Basic Issues = 87
 Privacy : The Sponsor's Relationship to the Participants = 89
 Privacy : What the Participants Learn About Each Other = 90
 Dealing With Stressful Topics = 91
 Setting Boundaries = 93
 Protecting the Sponsor's Privacy = 94
11. Checklist : Are Focus Groups Right for You? = 97
References = 99
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 101
About the Author = 103
[volume. vol.2]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = xi
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xiii
1. About This Book = 1
2. Guiding Principles of Planning = 3
 Think Through the Project From Start to Finish = 4
 Four Basic Steps = 4
  Planning = 4
  Recruiting = 4
  Moderating = 5
  Analysis and Reporting = 5
 Plan to Meet Your Purpose : "It All Depends on What You Want" = 5
 Planning : The Big Picture = 7
3. Planning and Timelines = 9
 Planning = 10
 Recruiting = 10
 Moderating = 11
 Analysis = 12
 Planning and Timelines for Smaller Focus Group Projects = 13
 Planning and Timelines for Larger Focus Group Projects = 16
 Factors That Can Shorten or Lengthen a Focus Group Project = 19
  Planning = 20
  Recruiting = 20
  Moderating = 21
  Analysis and Reporting = 21
4. Personnel and Budgeting = 23
 Planning = 24
 Recruiting = 24
 Moderating = 26
 Analysis and Reporting = 28
 Personnel and Budgeting for Smaller Projects = 30
 Personnel and Budgeting for Larger Proejcts = 34
 Factors That Affect Personnel and Budgeting Decisions = 37
  Planning = 37
  Recruiting = 38
  Moderating = 39
  Analysis and Reporting = 40
5. Deciding on the Degree of Structure = 43
 Knowing Your Goals Is Crucial = 44
 More Structure Emphasizes the Research Team's Focus = 46
 Less Structure Emphasizes the Group's Interests = 47
 Structure Includes Both Questions Content and Moderator Style = 48
  The Less Structured Approach to Questions = 49
  The More Structured Approach to Questions = 50
  The Less Structured Approach to Moderating = 50
  The More Structured Approach to Moderating = 51
 Moderately Structured Groups = 52
6. Deciding on the Group Composition = 55
 Sampling Strategies for Focus Groups = 56
 Creating a Comfortable, Productive Conversation Is the Key = 58
 Homogeneity : The Need for Compatible Participants = 59
 Segmentation : Comparing Categories of Participants = 63
 Strangers or Acquaintances? = 67
 Putting It Together : Group Composition Affects Other Decisions = 68
7. Deciding on Group Size = 71
 Typical Group Size Is Six to Ten = 71
 When to Use Smaller Groups = 73
 When to Use Larger Groups = 75
8. Deciding on the Number of Groups = 77
 Typical Number of Groups Is Three to Five = 77
 When Are More Groups Necessary? = 79
 When Are Fewer Groups Acceptable? = 81
 Using Just One Group is Often Risky = 82
9. Recruiting the Participants = 85
 What Is the Source of the Participants? = 86
 Making Contact = 91
 Screening Finds Special Categories of Participants = 94
 Giving and Receiving Information = 96
 Incentives Encourage Participation = 99
 Timing and Location Make a Difference = 101
 Plan Ahead to Minimize No-Show Rates = 103
 Professional Recruiting Services Are an Option = 107
 Checklist for Successful Recruitment = 110
 Examples of Recruitment Scripts = 111
  African Americans and Healthy Eating Habits = 111
  City Government Priorities = 117
10. Setting Up the Sessions = 121
 Choosing Locations = 121
 Focus Groups in Public Meeting Rooms = 122
 Using a Professional Facility = 124
 Focus Groups in Private Homes = 126
 At Any Location, Consider Food = 128
11. Checklist for Planning Focus Groups = 131
References = 133
Index to This Volume = 135
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 137
About the Author = 139
[volume. vol.3]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = xiii
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xv
About This Book = xix
Part Ⅰ : THINKING ABOUT QUESTIONS = 1
 1. Guiding Principles of Asking Questions = 3
  Conversational-Conversational-Conversational = 3
  Be Clear = 4
  Seek Help = 5
  Allow Sufficient Time = 5
  What Works Is Right = 6
 2. The Topic Guide Versus the Questioning Route = 9
  Advantages of the Topic Guide = 11
  Disadvantages of the Topic Guide = 11
  Advantages of the Questioning Route = 12
  Disadvantages of the Questioning Route = 12
 3. How and Where to Begin : Sequence for Developing Questions = 13
  Clarify the Problem = 14
  Begin to Identify Questions = 14
  Prepare First Draft of Questions = 15
  Share and Revise, Revise, Revise = 16
Part Ⅱ : THE ART AND MECHANICS OF ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS = 19
 4. Categories of Questions = 21
  Opening Question = 23
  Introductory Questions = 24
  Transition Questions = 25
  Key Questions = 25
  Ending Questions = 26
   All-Things-Considered Questions = 26
   Summary Question = 27
   Final Question = 28
  Putting the Parts Together = 28
 5. Phrasing the Questions = 31
  Use Open-Ended Questions = 31
  Ask Participants to Think Back = 32
  Avoid Asking Why = 33
  Keep Questions Simple = 34
  Be Cautious About Giving Examples = 35
 6. Sequencing the Questions = 37
  Provide Background Information to Participants = 38
  General Questions Before Specific Questions = 39
  Positive Questions Before Negative Questions = 39
  Uncued Questions Before Cued Questions = 40
  Participant Categories Before Other Categories = 41
 7. Probes, Follow-Ups, and Unplanned Questions = 45
  Probe Questions = 45
  Follow-Up Questions = 46
  Unplanned or Serendipitous Questions = 47
 8. Know the Limits = 49
  Time and Attention Constraints = 49
  Clarity Constraints = 50
  Cultural Constraints = 50
  Language Constraints = 51
 9. Changing Questions : The Importance of Consistency = 53
  Usually Questions Are Not Changed = 53
  Using Parallel and Similar Questions = 54
  Circumstances When Questions Might Change = 55
 10. Pilot Testing and Reviewing the Plan = 57
  Pilot Test Questions = 58
   With Research Team Members = 58
   With Experts = 58
   With Potential Participants and Nonresearchers = 58
  Reviewing the Focus Group Plan = 59
   With Research Team Members = 59
   With Experts = 59
   With Participants = 60
Part Ⅲ : QUESTIONS THAT ENGAGE PARTICIPANTS = 61
 11. Listing, Rating, and Choosing Questions = 63
  Listing Things = 64
  Rating Using a Predetermined Scale = 64
  Rating Using a Self-Determined Scale = 67
  Choosing Among Alternatives = 69
  Arranging Categories - Conceptual Mapping = 69
  Sorting Pictures = 70
 12. Projective Questions = 71
  Completing a Sentence = 72
  Developing a Collage = 73
  Drawing a Picture = 73
  Creating Analogies = 74
  Creating Families = 75
  Using Personification = 75
  Using Fantasy and Daydreams = 76
  Analysis of Projective Questions = 77
 13. Group Activities = 79
  Developing a Campaign = 79
  Role Playing = 80
  Mini-Team Debate = 81
Appendix : Examples of Questions = 83
 Training Needs of Dentists = 83
 Statewide Needs and the Role of the University = 85
 Local Business Needs Assessment = 85
 Nutrition Needs Assessment = 86
 Role of Spiritual Community in Youth Drug and Alcohol Prevention = 86
 Role of Parents in Youth Drug and Alcohol Prevention = 87
 System Standards for K-12 Public Education = 88
 The Role of Higher Education in the Community = 89
 Extension Agent Training Needs on Water Quality = 92
 Youth Focus Group on Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Prevention = 92
 Teen Pregnancy Prevention = 93
 Teen Violence Prevention = 94
 Violence Prevention and Treatment for a Category of People = 95
 Climate of Local High School = 95
 Changing the Name of the Department = 96
 Foundation Self-Assessment = 96
 Focus Group With Focus Group Moderators = 97
 Testing the Proposal for a New Educational Effort = 97
 Pilot Testing New Materials = 97
 Formative Program Evaluation = 98
 Complaint System Questions = 98
 Community Assessment = 99
 Inventory of Church Members = 100
References = 101
Index to This Volume = 103
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 105
About the Author = 107
[volume. vol.4]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = xiii
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xv
1. About This Book = 1
2. Guiding Principles of Moderating = 3
 Be Interested in the Participants - Showing Positive Regard = 3
 Be a Moderator, Not a Participant = 5
 Be Ready to Hear Unpleasant Views = 6
 You Can't Moderate All Groups = 6
 Use Your Unique Talents = 7
3. What You Need to Do : Before the Focus Group = 9
 Prepare Yourself Mentally = 9
 Assemble the Equipment = 11
 Arrange the Room = 13
4. What You Need to Do : During the Focus Group = 15
 Register Participants = 15
 Make Small Talk = 19
 Introduce the Focus Group = 21
 Ask Questions = 24
 Anticipate the Flow = 25
 Control Your Reactions = 27
 Be Comfortable With the Pause = 28
 Probe as Needed = 29
 Listen = 30
 Summarize the Discussion = 31
 Get People to Leave = 32
 Debrief With Assistant Moderator = 34
5. Selecting the Moderator = 37
 Professional Moderator = 38
 Occasional Moderator-Staff Person = 39
 Volunteer = 39
6. Personal Qualities of Moderators = 41
 Understanding of Group Process = 41
 Curiosity = 42
 Communication Skills = 43
 Friendliness and a Sense of Humor = 43
 Interest in People = 43
 Openness to New Ideas = 43
 Listening Skills = 44
7. Roles of Moderators = 45
 Seeker of Wisdom = 46
 Enlightened Novice = 46
 Expert Consultant = 46
 Challenger = 46
 Referee = 47
 Writer (AKA the Paper Hanger) = 47
 Team Member - Discussion Leader Supported by Technical Expert = 47
 Therapist = 48
 Serial Interviewer = 48
8. Problems Encountered by Moderators = 49
 Distractions = 50
 Too Few or Too Many Participants = 51
  Too Few Participants = 51
  Too Many Participants = 53
 Equipment = 55
 Room = 56
9. People Problems = 57
 Participant Behavior = 57
  Experts and Influentials = 58
  Dominant Talkers = 58
  Disruptive Participants = 60
  Ramblers and Wanderers = 61
  Quiet and Shy Respondents = 61
  Inattentive Participants = 61
 Participant Comments = 62
  Disrespectful and Personal Attacks = 63
  Incorrect or Harmful Advice = 63
  Personal Disclosurers = 64
 Participant Questions = 64
 Removing Participants From Focus Groups = 66
10. Assistant Moderator Responsibilities = 69
 Tips on Selecting an Assistant = 69
 The Role of the Assistant Moderator = 70
  Assist With Logistics = 71
  Monitor the Entrance and Handle Interruptions = 72
  Record Discussion = 73
  Observe the Discussion = 73
  Ask Follow-Up Questions = 73
  Offer Oral Summary = 73
  Participate in Debriefing = 73
  Assist With Analysis = 73
11. Taking Notes and Recording the Discussion = 75
 Note Taking = 76
 Flip Charts = 80
 Electronic Recording = 81
12. The Rapid Focus Group = 85
 Suggestions for Implementing Rapid Focus Groups = 86
  Have a Plan on File = 87
  Consider Your Resources = 87
  Determine the Number of Rapid Focus Groups Needed = 87
  Target Your Participants = 87
  Determine th Limits on Facilities and Time = 88
  Limit the Scope of Your Inquiry = 88
  Limit Your Questions = 88
  Consider How to Capture the Information = 89
  Debrief the Team = 89
  Rapid Analysis and Reporting = 89
 Questions for Rapid Focus Groups = 90
 Special Concerns = 91
 Success Comes From Consistency, Anticipation, and Experience = 91
 Ensuring Moderator Consistency = 92
 Preparing the Research Team = 93
 Note Taking in Rapid Focus Groups = 94
13. Rate Yourself : Check Sheets for Moderating = 95
14. Improving Your Moderating Skills = 101
 Get Feedback From a Coach or Mentor = 102
 Type Your Own Transcripts = 102
 Listen to Yourself and Follow the Transcript = 102
 Videotape Yourself Moderating = 103
 Observe Others Conducting Focus Groups = 103
 Form a Study or Support Group = 103
 Read About Focus Group Interviewing = 103
 Join a Professional Society or Group = 103
 Attend Classes on Moderating = 104
15. Teaching Others to Moderate = 105
 Questions and Answers on Teaching Others = 105
References = 109
Index to This Volume = 111
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 113
About the Author = 115
[volume. vol.5]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = ⅸ
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xi
About This Book = xv
Caution : Read This First = xvii
Directory of Icons in Chapter 3 = xxi
1. BACKGROUND AND GROUNDING : The Emergence of Participatory Studies = 1
 The Continuum of Volunteer Participation = 2
 The Evolution of Participatory Research Approaches = 3
 The Case for Volunteer Participation = 5
 When to Use "Professional" Researchers = 8
 When to Involve Volunteers in the Research Process = 9
 Countering the Naysayers = 10
 Summary = 13
2. HOW TO INVOLVE VOLUNTEERS = 15
 Collaborative Focus Groups = 16
  State Department of Education = 16
  A Community Assessment Effort = 17
  The University Listens = 18
  Customer Service = 19
 What Do We Mean by "Volunteer"? = 20
 What Brings Volunteers Together? = 22
  Stage 1 : Forming = 22
  Stage 2 : Storming = 22
  Stage 3 : Norming = 23
  Stage 4 : Performing = 23
 Should You Undertake a Collaborative Study? = 24
 The Collaborative Process = 24
 Preparing the Team = 27
  Brief Training Schedule = 30
  Moderate Training Schedule = 31
  Extended Training Schedule = 33
 Begin the Research = 35
 The Training Plan = 36
 Appendix : A Sample Training Plan = 37
3. LEARNING EXERCISES = 51
 A. Locating Focus Group Participants = 52
 B. Recruiting Focus Group Participants = 56
 C. Introducing the Focus Group = 61
 D. Developing Questions = 64
 E. Pilot Testing Questions = 65
 F. Moderating = 68
 G. Note Taking = 70
 H. Transcribing = 73
 I. Giving an Oral Summary at the End of Focus Groups = 75
 J. Analysis and Report Writing = 78
 K. Oral Reporting = 81
Final Thoughts = 85
References = 87
Index to This Volume = 89
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 91
About the Authors = 93
[volume. vol.6]----------
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments = xiii
Introduction to the Focus Group Kit = xv
About This Book = xix
Part Ⅰ : THE FOUNDATION = 1
 1. Introduction to Analysis = 3
  The Concept of Analysis = 4
  What Makes Qualitative Analysis Complex? = 5
 2. Critical Ingredients of Qualitative Analysis = 9
  Analysis Must Be Systematic = 10
  Analysis Must Be Verifiable = 11
  Analysis Requires Time = 12
  Analysis Is Jeopardized by Delay = 12
  Analysis Should Seek to Enlighten = 13
  Analysis Should Entertain Alternative Explanations = 15
  Analysis Is Improved by Feedback = 15
  Analysis Is a Process of Comparison = 17
  Analysis Is Situationally Responsive = 18
 3. Analysis Principles of Particular Importance to Focus Group Research = 19
  Focus Group Analysis Is Unique = 20
  Let Your Objectives Guide the Analysis = 21
  Don't Get Locked Into One Way of Thinking = 22
  Questions Are the Raw Material of Analysis = 23
  Effective Analysis Goes Beyond Words = 23
  Early Analysis Can Move the Study to Higher Levels = 24
  Computers Can Help - or Hinder = 24
  Analysis Takes Special Skills - and Some People Can't Do It = 26
  Analysis Must Have the Appropriate Level of Interpretation = 27
  Analysis Must Be Practical (Appropriate for the Situation) = 28
 4. Analysis Considerations for Focus Group Research = 31
  Consider the Words = 32
  Consider the Context = 33
  Consider the Internal Consistency = 34
  Consider the Frequency of Comments = 36
  Consider the Extensiveness of Comments = 36
  Consider the Intensity of Comments = 36
  Consider the Specificity of Responses = 37
  Consider What Was Not Said = 37
  Find the Big Ideas = 38
Part Ⅱ : DOING ANALYSIS = 39
 5. The Analysis Process = 41
  At the Beginning…Consider Analysis When Designing the Study = 42
  At the Beginning…Discuss Options for Analysis and Reporting With Sponsor = 43
  At the Beginning…Consider Analysis Implications of Questions = 43
  At the Beginning…Make Preliminary Decisions on Analysis Strategy = 44
   Option 1 : Transcript-Based Analysis = 45
   Option 2 : Tape-Based Analysis = 45
   Option 3 : Note-Based Analysis = 46
   Option 4 : Memory-Based Analysis = 46
  During the Group…Conduct and Analyze Several Focus Groups = 46
  A Little Later…Immediately After the Group = 50
  A Little Later…Periodically Review Analysis Strategy and Adjust as Needed = 51
  A Little Later…Conduct Additional Focus Groups and Possibly Modify Questions = 51
  At the End…Use Analysis Strategy on Remaining Groups = 52
  At the End…Prepare and Present Report = 52
 6. Tools and Equipment for Making Analysis Easier = 53
  Quality Microphone = 54
  Tape Recorder = 54
  Video Camera = 54
  Transcription Machine or Variable-Speed Tape Player = 55
  Flip Charts and Response Forms = 56
  Computer = 57
  Long Table, Scissors, and Colored Marking Pens = 57
 7. Questions Focus Group Analysts Must Face = 61
  Questions Asked of Focus Group Researchers = 64
   Is This Scientific Research? = 64
   Isn't Focus Group Research Just Subjective Opinions? = 65
   Isn't This Soft Research? = 67
   How Do You Determine Validity? = 68
   Can You Generalize? = 69
   Why Don't You Use Random Sampling? = 71
   How Big Is the Sample? or How Can You Make Those Statements With Such a Small Sample? = 72
  Questions Asked by Focus Group Researchers = 73
   How Do I Capture Information? = 73
   Should I Analyze by Questions or Themes? = 73
   Should I Edit Messy Quotations? = 73
   How Should I Interpret Nonverbal Communication? = 74
   How Should I Report Numbers in Focus Group Results? = 74
   What's Done With Information That Comes After the Focus Group? = 75
   Should I Ever Exclude or Ignore Information? = 76
   Who Should Analyze Focus Group Data? = 76
 8. Strategies Used by Experts = 79
  "Analysis - Honoring the Stories" by Mary Anne Casey = 80
  "Report Writing Without Guilt" by Reyn Kinzey = 85
  "An Analysis Strategy Based on Post-Session Debriefings" by David L. Morgan = 87
  "Computerized Analysis" by David L. Morgan = 89
  "Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results" by Marilyn J. Rausch = 94
 9. Advice for First-Timers = 97
  Few, Few, Few = 97
  Keep It Simple = 98
  Remember the Purpose and What the Client Wants = 98
  Ask Final Questions = 99
  Tape and Transcribe Yourself = 99
  Work With an Assistant = 100
  Work With a Mentor = 100
Part Ⅲ : SHARING RESULTS = 103
 10. Principles of Reporting = 105
  Remember the Purpose of Study = 105
  Consider the Audience = 106
  Consider the Options = 107
 11. Written Reports = 109
  Narrative Report = 109
  Report Memo = 115
  Top-Line Report = 118
  Bulleted Report = 120
 12. Oral Reports = 121
  Types of Oral Reports - A Continuum of Possibilities = 122
   Unstructured Conversational Report = 122
   Structured Conversational Report = 123
   Sponsor Debriefing = 123
   Informal Briefing = 123
   Formal Briefing = 124
   Formal Presentation/Lecture/Professional Meeting = 124
  Tips on Oral Reporting = 124
   Allow Time for Questions = 124
   Sequence Your Comments = 124
   Be Careful of the Ho-Hum Syndrome = 125
   Limit Your Points = 125
   Use Visuals and Quotes = 126
   Tell Your Audience What You Want Them to Do = 126
   Select the Right Reporter = 126
POSTSCRIPT : For Graduate Students Only = 129
References = 134
Index to This Volume = 135
Index to the Focus Group Kit = 137
About the Author = 139


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