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Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging : principles, methodology, and applications

Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging : principles, methodology, and applications

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Wehrli, F. W. Shaw, Derek. Kneeland, J. Bruce.
서명 / 저자사항
Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging : principles, methodology, and applications / edited by Felix W. Wehrli, Derek Shaw, J. Bruce Kneeland.
발행사항
New York, N.Y. :   VCH,   c1988.  
형태사항
xvii, 601 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0895733498
서지주기
Includes bibliographies and indexes.
일반주제명
Magnetic resonance imaging. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance --diagnostic use. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance --methods.
000 00960camuuu200289 a 4500
001 000000614821
005 19981112151801.0
008 871002s1988 nyua b 001 0 eng c
010 ▼a 87029566
020 ▼a 0895733498
040 ▼a DNLM/DLC ▼c DLC ▼d NLM
049 1 ▼l 421101377 ▼f 과학
050 0 ▼a RC78.7.N83 ▼b B56 1988
060 ▼a WN 445 B615
082 0 0 ▼a 616.07/54 ▼2 19
090 ▼a 616.0754 ▼b B615
245 0 0 ▼a Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging : ▼b principles, methodology, and applications / ▼c edited by Felix W. Wehrli, Derek Shaw, J. Bruce Kneeland.
260 ▼a New York, N.Y. : ▼b VCH, ▼c c1988.
300 ▼a xvii, 601 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 24 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographies and indexes.
650 0 ▼a Magnetic resonance imaging.
650 2 ▼a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ▼x diagnostic use.
650 2 ▼a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ▼x methods.
700 1 ▼a Wehrli, F. W.
700 1 ▼a Shaw, Derek.
700 1 ▼a Kneeland, J. Bruce.

소장정보

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 과학도서관/Sci-Info(2층서고)/ 청구기호 616.0754 B615 등록번호 421101377 도서상태 대출가능 반납예정일 예약 서비스 B M

컨텐츠정보

목차

CONTENTS
1. The fundamental Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance / Derek Shaw
  1.1 Introduction = 1
    1.1.1 the Nuclear Spin = 1
    1.1.2 The Vector Description of Magnetic Resonance = 4
  1.2 Fourier Transforms and the Two Domains = 5
  1.3 Relaxation = 8
    1.3.1 Spin-Lattice Relaxation(T 1 ) = 8
    1.3.2 Spin-Spin Relaxation(T 2 ) = 9
  1.4 The Spin Echo = 9
  1.5 The NMR Spectrum = 10
  1.6 Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 12
  1.7 The Two-Dimensional Fourier-Transform Imaging Pulse-Sequence = 15
    1.7.1 Radio-frequency Pulses = 16
    1.7.2 Field Gradients = 17
    1.7.3 Data Collection Period = 17
    1.7.4 The Spin-Warp Sequence = 18
  1.8 Multidimensional Imaging = 22
  1.9 Fast-Imaging Sequences = 25
    1.9.1 Gradient-Recalled Small Flip-Angle Imaging = 26
    1.9.2 Echo Planar and Hybrid Imaging = 28
  1.10 Factors Affection Image Appearance = 29
    1.10.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Time, and Resolution = 29
    1.10.2 Chemical-Shift Effects = 31
    1.10.3 Motion Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 31
    1.10.4 Choice of Axes = 32
  1.11 Localized Spectroscopy = 32
    1.11.1 Methods of Localization = 33
    1.11.2 Water Suppression Techniques = 36
  1.12 Instrumentation = 38
    1.12.1 The Magnet = 38
    1.12.2 Gradient Coils = 41
    1.12.3 Radio-frequency Coils = 42
    1.12.4 The Transceiver = 43
    1.12.5 The Data System = 44
  References = 45
2. Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Resolution, and Contrast / Emanuel Kanal ; Felix W. Wehrli
  2.1 Introduction = 47
  2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters = 47
  2.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio, and Resolving Power = 51
    2.3.1 Study Objectives = 51
    2.3.2 Effect of Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Image Appearance = 51
    2.3.3 Effect of Contrast-to-Noise Ratio on Image Appearance = 52
    2.3.4 Spatial Resolution = 55
    2.3.5 Scan Time = 58
    2.3.6 Goal-Oriented Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 59
  2.4 Pulse Sequence and Pulse-Timing Parameters = 62
    2.4.1 Repetition Time(TR) = 62
    2.4.2 Echo Delay (TE) = 68
    2.4.3 Image Synthesis = 80
    2.4.4 Fast-Imaging Techniques = 83
  2.5 Dependence of Spatial Resolution on Scan parameters = 89
    2.5.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio Implications of Spatial Resolution = 93
    2.5.2 Slice Thickness = 98
  2.6 Additional Scan and Display Parameters = 98
    2.6.1 Inter-Slice Spacing = 98
    2.6.2 Pulse Flip-Angle Calibration = 100
    2.6.3 Transmitter Frequency Setting = 101
    2.6.4 Choice of Radio frequency Coil = 102
    2.6.5 Image Display Settings = 105
  2.7 Chemical-Shift Effect and Gibbs Artifact = 106
    2.7.1 Chemical-Shift Effect = 107
    2.7.2 Gibbs Artifact = 111
  2.8 Summary = 112
  References = 112
3. Relaxation of Biological Tissues / Gary D. Fullerton ; Ivan L. Cameron
  3.1 Introduction = 115
  3.2 Fundamental Relaxation Processes = 116
    3.2.1 Dipole-Dipole Coupling = 116
    3.2.2 Frequency Dependence of Relaxation Rates = 120
    3.2.3 Temperature Dependence = 120
    3.2.4 The Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound Theory = 120
    3.2.5 Non-viscous Liquids = 122
    3.2.6 Solids = 123
    3.2.7 Viscous Liquids = 124
  3.3 Aqueous Solutions = 124
    3.3.1 Solutes = 125
    3.3.2 Water-Structuring Effects = 126
    3.3.3 Paramagnetic Ions = 127
    3.3.4 Macromolecular Hydration Effects = 128
    3.3.5 Three-Fraction Hydration Model = 128
    3.3.6 Cross Relaxation = 132
    3.3.7 Molecular-Weight Dependence = 133
    3.3.8 Denaturation = 135
    3.3.9 Polymerization = 137
  3.4 Biological Tissues = 139
    3.4.1 Anisotropic Rotation : Short T 2 = 139
    3.4.2 Fast Exchange : Cellular Suspensions = 140
    3.4.3 Fast Exchange : Soft Tissues = 143
    3.4.4 Slow Exchange : Soft Tissues = 145
    3.4.5 Organ Characterization = 146
    3.4.6 Water Content = 148
    3.4.7 Lipid Content = 149
    3.4.8 Perturbed-Water Motion = 150
    3.4.9 Paramagnetic Iron Species = 151
  3.5 Summary = 151
  References = 151
4. Magneto-pharmaceuticals / George E. Wesbey
  4.1 Magnetic Resonance Agents : Are They Necessary? = 157
  4.2 Principles of Magneto-pharmaceutical Action = 158
    4.2.1 Paramagnetic Pharmaceuticals = 158
    4.2.2 Diamagnetic Pharmaceuticals = 166
  4.3 Desired Pharmaceutical Properties of Para-magnetics = 166
  4.4 Oral Gastrointestinal Magneto-pharmaceuticals = 166
  4.5 Systemic Magneto-pharmaceuticals = 168
    4.5.1 Nitroxide-Spin Labels = 168
    4.5.2 Transition-Metal and Rare-Earth Complexes = 171
  4.6 Inhalational Paramagnetic Agents (Gases) = 182
  4.7 Conclusion = 183
  References = 183
5. High-Resolution Methods Using Local Coils / James S. Hyde ; J. Bruce Kneeland
  5.1 Introduction = 189
  5.2 General Principles = 190
    5.2.1 Sensitivity Considerations = 190
    5.2.2 Excitation Options and Radio frequency Decoupling = 194
    5.2.3 Matching and Tuning = 196
  5.3 Specific Local-Coil Designs = 198
    5.3.1 Planar Pairs = 198
    5.3.2 Counter-Rotating Current Coils = 199
    5.3.3 Butterfly Coils = 201
    5.3.4 Tandem Coils = 202
  5.4 Miscellaneous Technical Comments on Local Coils = 205
    5.4.1 Matching = 205
    5.4.2 Self-Excitation = 205
    5.4.3 Other Intrinsic Isolation Geometries = 206
    5.4.4 1986 Update = 206
  5.5 Performance Considerations for Diagnostic Imaging with Local Coils = 207
  5.6 Coil Selection = 208
  5.7 Coil Placement = 212
  5.8 Study Performance = 213
  5.9 Clinical Applications = 214
    5.9.1 The Spine = 215
    5.9.2 The Neck = 216
    5.9.3 The Temporomandibular Joint = 217
    5.9.4 The Musculoskeletal System = 218
    5.9.5 Miscellaneous Clinical Applications = 220
    5.9.6 1986 Clinical Update = 221
  5.10 Conclusion = 221
  References = 222
6. Brain Imaging and Spectroscopy / Burton P. Drayer
  6.1 Introduction = 225
  6.2 The Normal Brain = 226
    6.2.1 Pediatric = 226
    6.2.2 Adult = 228
  6.3 Applications to Disease Diagnosis = 233
    6.3.1 Vascular Disease : Ischemia, Infarction, and Hematoma = 233
    6.3.2 Neurodegenerative Diseases = 244
    6.3.3 Glioma = 260
    6.3.4 Epilepsy = 265
    6.3.5 Multiple Sclerosis = 268
  6.4 Conclusions = 275
  References = 275
7. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging / George E. Wesbey
  7.1 Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 279
    7.1.1 Physiologic Gating = 279
    7.1.2 Normal Anotomy, Physiology, and Biophysics of Cardiovascular MRI = 282
    7.1.3 Myocardial Pathology = 286
    7.1.4 Vascular Disease = 292
    7.1.5 Summary of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 295
  7.2 Pulmonary and Mediastinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 296
    7.2.1 Biophysical Problems and Promise = 296
    7.2.2 Mediastinal Anatomy and Pathology = 297
    7.2.3 Hilar Pathology = 298
    7.2.4 Endobronchial and Parenchymal Lung Disease = 298
    7.2.5 Pulmonary Circulation = 299
    7.2.6 Pulmonary Edema = 300
    7.2.7 Conclusion = 302
  References = 302
8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis / David D. Stark ; Peter F. Hahn
  8.1 Introduction = 307
  8.2 Imaging Techniques = 308
    8.2.1 Anatomic Considerations = 308
    8.2.2 Tissue Characterization = 322
  8.3 Liver = 327
    8.3.1 Choice of Pulse-Timing Parameters = 329
    8.3.2 Liver Lesion Characterization = 333
  8.4 Spleen = 337
  8.5 Pancreas = 339
    8.5.1 Normal Pancreas = 339
    8.5.2 Neo-plastic Disease = 347
    8.5.3 Inflammatory Disease = 347
    8.5.4 Metabolic Disease = 347
  8.6 Kidneys = 350
    8.6.1 Normal Anatomy = 350
    8.6.2 Pathology = 351
  8.7 Adrenal Glands = 355
  8.8 Other Retroperitonal Structures = 364
    8.8.1 Aorta = 364
    8.8.2 Venous Disease = 365
    8.8.3 Lymphadenopathy = 366
  8.9 Pelvis = 366
    8.9.1 Urinary Bladder = 368
    8.9.2 Prostate = 368
    8.9.3 Uterus = 368
    8.9.4 Rectum = 369
  8.10 Obstetrics = 371
  8.11 Summary = 378
  References = 379
9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System / Thomas H. Berquist
  9.1 Introduction = 383
  9.2 patient Selection = 384
  9.3 Positioning and Imaging Techniques = 388
    9.3.1 Patient Positioning = 388
    9.3.2 Coil Selection = 388
    9.3.3 Pulse Sequences = 389
  9.4 Musculoskeletal Trauma = 394
    9.4.1 Skeletal Trauma = 394
    9.4.2 Articular and Peri-articular Trauma = 395
    9.4.3 Extra-articular Soft-Tissue Trauma = 397
  9.5 Bone-and Soft-Tissue Neoplasms = 398
    9.5.1 Primary Bone-and Soft-Tissue Tumors = 399
    9.5.2 Metastatic Disease = 407
    9.5.3 Postoperative Evaluation and Recurrence = 407
  9.6 Infection = 408
    9.6.1 Hematogenous Infection = 408
    9.6.2 Infection in Violated Tissue = 411
    9.6.3 Surgical Reconstructive Procedures = 412
    9.6.4 Summary : Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Infection = 413
  9.7 Miscellaneous Conditions and Future Potential = 413
    9.7.1 Osteonecrosis = 413
    9.7.2 Inflammatory Myopathy and Arthropathy = 415
    9.7.3 Congenital, Metabolic, and Other Musculoskeletal Disorders = 415
  9.8 Summary : Current Status of Musculoskeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 416
  References = 417
10. Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging / William H. Perman ; Patrick A. Turski
  10.1 Introduction = 421
    10.1.1 Sensitivity Considerations = 421
    10.1.2 Fluorine-19 Imaging = 422
    10.1.3 Phosphorus-31 Imaging = 422
  10.2 Principles of Sodium Imaging = 423
    10.2.1 Nuclear Properties of Sodium-23 = 423
    10.2.2 Effects of Correlation Time = 424
    10.2.3 Spectral Visibility of Sodium-23 = 424
    10.2.4 Detection Sensitivity and Bio-distribution = 426
    10.2.5 Imaging Methodology = 426
    10.2.6 Signal-to-Noise and Contrast-to-Noise Ratios = 428
    10.2.7 The Role of Sodium in Cell Physiology = 438
  10.3 Clinical sodium Imaging = 439
    10.3.1 Pathologies Studied = 439
    10.3.2 Image Appearance in Normal Subjects = 439
    10.3.3 Pathologic Conditions = 439
  10.4 Sodium Imaging of Vasogenic Edema = 448
    10.4.1 Alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability = 448
    10.4.2 Experimental Vasogenic Edema Studies = 452
    10.4.3 Patient Studies = 456
  10.5 Intracellular Sodium = 457
    10.5.1 Cerebral Blood Flow, Ischemia, and Infarction = 457
    10.5.2 Cellular Proliferation = 458
  10.6 Ancillary Issues = 464
  References = 466
11. Magnetic Resonance Flow Phenomena and Flow Imaging / Felix W. Wehrli ; William G. Bradley, Jr.
  11.1 Flow-Imaging Issues = 469
  11.2 Alternative Flow-Imaging Techniques = 470
    11.2.1 Routine Angiography = 470
    11.2.2 Digital Subtraction Angiography = 472
    11.2.3 Ultrasound = 472
    11.2.4 Nuclear Angiography = 475
    11.2.5 Computed Tomography = 475
  11.3 Potential Role of Magnetic Resonance in Flow Imaging = 475
  11.4 Flow Phenomena in Magnetic Resonance Images = 477
    11.4.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow = 477
    11.4.2 Flow-Related Enhancement = 479
    11.4.3 Flow Void = 480
    11.4.4 Even-Echo Re-phasing = 484
    11.4.5 Diastolic Pseudo-gating = 484
    11.4.6 Artifacts = 487
  11.5 Physical Basis of Flow-Induced Signal Modulation = 488
    11.5.1 Time-of-Flight Effect = 488
    11.5.2 Phase Effects = 494
  11.6 Flow-Imaging Methods = 497
    11.6.1 Amplitude Methods = 497
    11.6.2 phase Methods = 508
    11.6.3 Motion-Correction Techniques = 515
  11.7 Conclusion = 515
  References = 518
12. The Biomedical Applications of Spectroscopy and Spectrally Resolved Imaging / R.D. Griffiths ; R.H.T. Edwards
  12.1 Aim = 521
    12.1.1 Principle of the "Integrated Examination" = 521
    12.1.2 Flexibility in Approach = 522
  12.2 Introduction to magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy = 523
  12.3 Muscle Metabolism = 523
    12.3.1 Introduction = 523
    12.3.2 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Techniques = 525
    12.3.3 Cellular Energetics = 525
    12.3.4 Muscle at Work = 529
    12.3.5 Phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Investigation of Metabolic Myopathy = 530
    12.3.6 Muscular Dystrophy = 530
    12.3.7 Other Studies on Muscle = 532
    12.3.8 Muscle Studies Using Other Nuclei = 533
  12.4 Brain Metabolism = 534
    12.4.1 Introduction = 534
    12.4.2 Clinical Relevance = 534
    12.4.3 Brain Injury = 534
    12.4.4 Therapeutic Attempts to Prevent Brain Injury = 535
    12.4.5 Brain Development = 535
    12.4.6 Hydrogen-I Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of the Brain = 535
    12.4.7 Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of the Brain = 536
    12.4.8 Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy = 538
  12.5 Localization in Deeper Tissues : Heart, Liver, Kidney = 538
    12.5.1 Introduction = 538
    12.5.2 Surface Coils = 538
    12.5.3 Deeper Tissues = 539
    12.5.4 Heart Metabolism = 540
    12.5.5 Liver Metabolism = 540
    12.5.6 Kidney Metabolism = 543
  12.6 Cancer Metabolism = 543
  12.7 Conclusions = 544
  References = 545
13. Safety Aspects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging / Daniel J. Schaefer
  13.1 Introduction = 553
    13.1.1 Basic Components of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging System = 553
    13.1.2 Review of Exposure Guidelines = 554
  13.2 Static Magnetic Fields = 556
    13.2.1 Possible Mechanisms for Static Magnetic Field Bio effects = 556
    13.2.2 Static Magnetic Fields : Literature Survey and Analysis = 557
    13.2.3 Human Epidemiologic Studies of Static Magnetic Fields = 558
  13.3 Time-Varying Magnetic Fields = 558
  13.4 Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields = 561
    13.4.1 Nature of Radio frequency Power Deposition in Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 561
    13.4.2 Possible Mechanisms for Radio frequency Bio effects = 563
    13.4.3 Radio frequency Bio Effects : Literature Review = 564
    13.4.4 Practical Considerations Concerning SAR in Magnetic Resonance Imaging = 564
    13.4.5 SAR Studies in Sheep = 565
    13.4.6 SAR Studies in Humans = 568
  13.5 Future Studies = 574
  References = 575
Author Index = 579
Subject Index = 593

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