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Understanding information technology : text, readings, and cases 2nd ed

Understanding information technology : text, readings, and cases 2nd ed

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
Behan, Kate Holmes, Diana, 1947.
Title Statement
Understanding information technology : text, readings, and cases / Kate Behan, Diana Holmes.
판사항
2nd ed.
Publication, Distribution, etc
New York :   Prentice Hall,   c1990.  
Physical Medium
xiii, 494 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
ISBN
0139455779 0724812350
Bibliography, Etc. Note
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
Electronic data processing. Information technology. Information storage and retrieval systems.
000 00878camuuu200289 a 4500
001 000000587510
005 19980430144327.0
008 931215s1990 nyua b 001 0 eng
010 ▼a 89026550
020 ▼a 0139455779
020 ▼a 0724812350
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d 211046
049 1 ▼l 121007387
050 0 0 ▼a QA76
082 0 4 ▼a 004 ▼2 18
090 ▼a 004 ▼b B419u2
100 1 ▼a Behan, Kate
245 1 0 ▼a Understanding information technology : ▼b text, readings, and cases / ▼c Kate Behan, Diana Holmes.
250 ▼a 2nd ed.
260 ▼a New York : ▼b Prentice Hall, ▼c c1990.
300 ▼a xiii, 494 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 28 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
650 0 ▼a Electronic data processing.
650 0 ▼a Information technology.
650 0 ▼a Information storage and retrieval systems.
700 1 ▼a Holmes, Diana, ▼d 1947.

Holdings Information

No. Location Call Number Accession No. Availability Due Date Make a Reservation Service
No. 1 Location Science & Engineering Library/Sci-Info(Stacks2)/ Call Number 004 B419u2 Accession No. 121007387 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Table of Contents


CONTENTS
Preface = xi
1. Introduction needs = 1
 Introduction = 1
 What is information technology? = 1
 The desire to communicate = 2
 Why we need information systems = 2
 The data now among organisational functions = 4
 Components of an information system = 4
 Types of information systems = 5
  Simple task-oriented transaction processing systems = 5
  Complex transaction processing and control systems = 5
  Decision support systems = 7
  Knowledge-based systems = 7
 Why we need information = 7
 Decision-making levels = 7
 The need for data planning = 8
 What information do we need? = 9
 Other information heads and sources = 9
  Legislative requirements = 9
  External bodies = 10
 When do we need information? = 10
 Information needs in a library = 12
 Meeting in formation needs = 13
  Meetings = 13
  Telephones = 14
  Letters and memos = 14
 Using machines to improve information resources = 16
  Functions that machines can perform = 16
  The increasing use of computers = 16
  Declining cost of computing equipment = 17
  Increase in computer applications = 18
  Advances in the communications industry = 19
  The need to consider human factors = 20
 Reading 1.1 Technology development = 20
 Review of key points = 25
 Review questions = 26
 Exercises = 26
 Case studies = 27
  1.1 Gift Advice = 27
  1.2 Australian Red Cross Society = 28
 Text case : TogoToys = 32
2. Computer systems = 39
 Basic computer concepts = 39
  Components of a computer system = 39
  Primary and secondary storage = 40
  Hardware and software = 40
 Putting the bits together = 41
  ROM and RAM = 42
  Memory size = 42
  The binary system = 44
 Software = 45
  Software environment = 45
  Operating system concepts = 46
  Role of operating systems = 46
  Single-user versus multi-user systems = 48
  Special software needs of multi-user systems = 49
  Taking care with backup copies = 49
  Extending memory size = 50
  Proprietary Versus standard operating systems = 50
  Problems with multi-user systems = 51
  Uniprocessor versus multiprocessor systems = 52
  A multi-user example = 54
  Compatibility = 54
  Application software = 55
  Software tools = 56
 Reading 2.1 Presentation graphics : How to prepare the all-moving, all-colour PC presentation = 61
 Computer personnel = 62
 Reading 2.2 Computing your future = 62
 Ways of using computers = 63
  Centralised processing = 63
  Decentralised data recording = 64
  Remote job entry = 64
  Teleprocessing systems = 64
  Distributed processing = 65
  Use of personal computers = 65
  Local area networks = 66
  Batch, immediate and real-time processing = 66
  Using outside computer services = 69
 Computer labels = 70
  What's in a name? = 70
  Small machines = 70
  Mainframes = 72
  Mid-range systems = 72
  Quantum effect transistors = 72
  Optical computers = 73
  Example : IBM's Personal system / 2 = 73
 Reading 2.3 Machine performance : Fact and fiction = 76
 Review of key points = 77
 Review questions = 78
 Exercises = 78
 Case studies = 83
  2.1 Gift Advice = 83
  2.2 Australian Red Cross Society = 83
  2.3 Eat Well = 83
  2.4 General Airlines Limited = 84
  2.5 Multiple Sclerosis Society = 85
 Text Case : TogoToys = 87
3. Data management = 91
 Introduction = 91
 Organising data = 92
 Data base concepts = 93
 Relational data base systems = 94
  Data base terminology = 94
  System design considerations = 97
  Linking files together = 97
  Primary and foreign keys = 99
 Other data base models = 99
 Data base examples = 99
  Example : Health care = 99
  Example : Sports commentators = 100
  Example : Political commentators = 100
  Example : Organised crime = 101
 Role of a data base management system = 103
  Data dictionary = 103
 Micro versus mainframe DBMS = 104
 Reading 3.1 Progressing toward the ideal data base = 104
 Retrieving data from files = 108
 Master files and transaction files = 109
 Other types of files = 109
 Using identification codes = 110
 Updating data = 110
 Stored data problems = 111
 Changing the contents of computer files = 111
 Protecting computer files = 111
 Query systems = 112
 Reading 3.2 INTELLECT - a natural English query system = 113
 Introduction to expert systems = 114
 Components of an expert system = 115
  Example : PREDICTE = 115
  Example : Coal mining = 115
 Potential effects of expert systems = 116
 Comparing human and artificial expertise = 116
 A Comparison of traditional computer systems and expert systems = 117
 What is an expert system shell? = 117
 VP Expert = 117
 Review of key points = 121
 Review questions = 122
 Exercises = 122
 Case studies = 124
  3.1 Video rentals = 124
  3.2 General Airlines Limited = 124
  3.3 Australian Red Cross Society = 124
  3.4 Gift Advice = 125
 Text case : TogoToys = 125
4. Peripherals = 127
 Introduction = 127
 Output needs = 127
  Hard copy or soft copy? = 127
  Regular output needs = 128
  On-demand output needs = 130
  Unplanned output needs = 130
  Printed-matter problems = 130
  Reducing regular reports = 131
 Printed output = 131
  Types of printers = 131
  Laser printers = 132
  Selecting a printer = 133
  Graphic output = 134
  Desktop publishing = 134
 Voice output = 135
  Example : Voice response imaging = 136
 Screen output = 137
 Computer output on microfilm = 137
  How microfilm works = 137
  Example : Car manufacturing = 138
  Example : Micrographics = 139
 Input needs = 140
 Sources of input = 140
 Input processes = 141
 Input objectives = 142
 Input methods = 142
  Keyboards = 143
  Pointing devices = 144
  Voice input = 146
  Handwritten input = 148
  Scanners and optical character recognition = 148
  Portable data entry terminals = 150
  Point-of-sale systems = 151
 Examples of input systems = 153
 A POS case = 153
  Example : Pizza restaurants = 153
 Bar code cases = 154
  Example : Baggage tracking = 154
  Example : Airline catering = 154
  Example : Mining = 155
  Example : Film processing = 156
  Example : Portable data entry = 156
  Example : Van sales system = 157
  Example : Portable data collection = 158
 Storage needs = 159
 Magnetic storage systems = 159
  Floppy disks = 159
  Hard disks = 161
 Reading 4.1 The hard word on disks = 162
  Magnetic tapes = 164
  Magnetic tapes cartridges = 165
  Streaming tape = 166
 Optical storage = 166
  Videodisks = 166
  CD-ROMs = 167
  Comparison with magnetic storage = 167
  Sample CD-ROM titles = 167
  Example : The Domesday Book = 169
  Example : Optical storage = 169
  How a CD-ROM is produced = 170
  Erasable optical disk = 171
 The information explosion = 171
  Image storage and retrieval systems = 171
  Image processing systems = 172
  Document management = 172
  Example : Image storage = 175
 Review of key points = 175
 Review questions = 175
 Exercises = 176
 Case studies = 178
  4.1 Gift Advice = 178
  4.2 Australian Red Cross Society = 178
  4.3 General Airlines Limited = 178
  4.4 Eat Well = 179
  4.5 Multiple Sclerosis Society = 179
  4.6 Sharp Shirts = 179
  4.7 Finger Lickin' Chicken = 180
  4.8 A Medical practice = 180
 Text case : TogoToys = 181
5. Data communications = 183
 Introduction = 183
 Sample computer networks = 183
  Example : Livestock marketing = 183
  Example : Television newsroom = 183
  Example : Petrol station = 184
 Communications needs = 184
 What is data communications? = 185
 Communications fundamentals = 185
  Data communications terminology = 185
  Communications processors = 188
  Configuring a sample network = 189
  Modems = 190
  Open systems interconnection (OSI) model = 190
  ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network = 191
  Example : Voice / video integration = 194
  Transmission media = 194
 A fibre optics example = 196
  Example : The Australian Telescope = 196
 Connectivity = 196
  Micro-mainframe links = 197
  Local area networks = 198
 Reading 5.1 The local network revolution = 198
  Example : Police communications using a local area network = 202
  Multi-user micros = 203
  Managing multi-user systems = 203
  Example : The Expo '88 network = 204
  Example : The Seoul Olympic network = 204
  Example : The Australian Customs network = 206
  Example : The Civil Aviation Authority network = 206
 Reading 5.2 Lawyers switch on to world of computers = 208
 Office automation = 210
  Communications = 210
  Information retrieval = 211
  Time management = 211
 Telephone technology = 212
  Telephone innovations = 213
  Electronic White Pages = 214
  Paging systems = 215
  How your messages get the through = 216
  Miniature inquiry terminal = 216
 Electronic messaging systems = 217
  Example : Esi Street = 218
  X.400 standard = 219
  Teletex = 219
  Electronic document interchange (EDI) = 220
  Public data bases = 221
  Bulletin boards = 221
 Radio communications = 222
  Mobile telephones and cellular radio = 222
  Mobile net service = 222
 Satellite communications = 222
 Satellite communications examples = 224
  Example : An Australian Associated Press (AAP) newsroom = 224
  Example : Eastmet Ltd Youanmi gold mines = 225
  Example : School of the Air = 225
  Example : Starnet = 225
  Example : VISTEL = 226
 Reading 5.3 Submarine cables - deep beneath me sea = 227
 Reading 5.4 Gateways to the world = 230
  Teleports = 230
  Example : AUSSAT City Link service = 230
 Communicating with voice mail = 231
 Electronic filing systems = 232
 Facsimile communication = 233
  Components of a facsimile systems = 233
  Facsimile system operation = 233
  Benefits of facsimile communication = 233
 Video teleconferencing = 234
 Videotex = 235
 Reading 5.5 Videotex - in Australia = 235
  Example : Housing trades = 236
  Example : Minitel = 236
 Automatic teller machine technology = 237
  EFT / POS equipment = 238
 Reading 5.6 EFT in Australia = 238
 Smart cards = 242
 Reading 5.7 Telecommunications means business = 243
 Review of key points = 247
 Review questions = 248
 Exercises = 248
 Case studies = 251
  5.1 Australian Red Cross Society = 251
  5.2 General Airlines Limited = 251
  5.3 Olympic Games = 251
 Text case : TogoToys = 252
6. Management issues = 255
 Introduction = 255
 Organisational objectives = 255
  Evaluating alternatives = 256
 Acquiring a computer resource = 257
  Ways of acquiring application software = 258
  Evaluating appropriate hardware = 259
 Selecting a supplier = 260
  What is in an RFP? = 260
  Who should an RFP be sent to? = 261
  Evaluating proposals = 261
  Business competence of supplier = 262
  Demonstration performance of a prospective supplier = 263
  Relying on suppliers = 264
  Checking contracts = 264
  Example : Selecting a system = 266
 Feasibility review = 266
  Technical feasibility = 266
  Economic feasibility = 267
  Operational feasibility = 268
 Organisational issues = 269
  Corporate planning = 269
  Future information needs = 270
  Reading 6.1 MIS for strategic planning and a competitive edge = 271
  Data = 274
  Communications = 274
  Documentation = 275
  Contingency planning = 275
  Reading 6.2 Contingency planning : A discussion of strategies = 275
  Reading 6.3 Hospital's inhouse hotsite = 279
  Project management = 280
  Using consultants = 280
  Realistic expectations = 282
 Managing staff = 283
  User involvement = 283
  Politics = 284
  Motivation = 284
  Education and training = 284
  Redesigning jobs = 286
 Reading 6.4 Job enrichment boosts performance = 287
 Review of key points = 290
 Review questions = 291
 Exercises = 292
 Case studies = 296
  6.1 The Jolly Soak = 296
  6.2 Eastern College of Higher Learning = 297
  6.3 Australian Red Cross Society = 298
 Text case : TogoToys = 299
7. Traditional systems development = 301
 Introduction = 301
  The system's life cycle = 301
 Analysis = 302
  Controls = 302
  Structured analysis = 303
  Fact finding = 303
 Reading 7.1 Conducting better interview = 305
  Diagramming techniques = 310
 Design = 323
  Controls = 324
  Tools and techniques = 324
 Reading 7.2 The human connection in systems design -screen design = 326
 Programming and testing = 332
  What is programming? = 334
  Structured programming = 337
  Programming languages = 337
 Reading 7.3 Computer speak = 338
 Implementation = 342
  File creation = 342
  Systems testing = 344
  Conversion = 345
  Other activities = 345
 Review of key points = 347
 Review questions = 347
 Exercises = 349
 Case studies = 350
  7.1 Avid Aths = 350
  7.2 Australian Red Cross Society = 352
 Text case : TogoToys = 352
8. Alternative systems development approaches = 355
 Introduction = 355
 Why use alternative approaches? = 355
  Time = 356
  Errors = 356
  Maintenance = 358
  Productivity = 358
 Application packages = 358
  How packages affect development = 359
  Selecting a package = 360
  Assessing the user interface = 363
  Modifications = 365
  Where packages fit = 366
  Why some people don't use packages = 366
  Packages reduce risks = 367
  Example : Capital Building Society = 367
 User driven systems = 369
 Reading 8.1 Caution : User developed systems can be dangerous to your organisation = 369
  Graphics packages = 377
  End user query languages = 378
  Information centres = 378
  Example : DP at GTE = 380
  Prototyping = 381
 Reading 8.2 A practical approach to expert systems = 382
 Reading 8.3 The on-line revolution at the Nestl$${e'}$$ Co. = 387
  Participative design = 389
 Tools for computer professionals = 390
  Computer-aided software engineering = 390
  Application generators = 392
 Reading 8.4 MANTIS : A user report = 393
  Expert system shells = 396
  Code generators = 396
  Program renovation = 396
  Example : US Army payroll system = 399
  Example : Ameritrust = 399
  Programming aids = 400
 Future directions = 400
 Review of key points = 400
 Review questions = 401
 Exercises = 402
 Case studies = 404
  8.1 DK Corporation = 404
  8.2 Australian Red Cross Society = 405
 Text case : TogoToys = 405
9. Social issues = 409
 Introduction = 409
 Reading 9.1 Living by our wits = 410
 Employment = 416
  Teleworking = 417
  The international environment = 418
 Ergonomics = 418
 Reading 9.2 Ergonomics : The key to efficiency in the modern office environment = 418
 Robotics = 420
 Examples of Robotics = 422
  Example : AIDS diagnosis = 423
  Example : Help for the handicapped = 423
  Example : Underwater exploration = 424
  Example : A robot supermarket = 424
  Example : Shearing = 424
  Example : Prison patrols = 424
 Disadvantaged groups = 424
  Example : Cerebral Palsy = 424
  Example : Video play = 425
  Example : Computer creativity = 425
  Example : Alarm system = 426
  Example : Direct Helper = 426
  Example : Quadriplegic directory = 426
  Example : Voice synthesis = 426
  Example : Artificial limbs = 426
  Example : Aboriginal Information Service = 426
  Example : Head injury rehabilitation = 427
  Example : Distance education = 427
 Computer crime = 429
  Examples of computer crime = 430
  Hackers = 431
  Detection - difficulties = 431
  Legal action - difficulties = 431
 Privacy = 432
  Invasion of privacy = 432
  Example : Fingerprint identification = 432
  Example : Cancer research = 432
 Reading 9.3 Position Paper 1A : Information privacy = 434
  Example : RESI-Statewide = 437
  An Australian controversy = 437
 Reading 9.4 Position Paper 1B : A national identification scheme = 437
 Security = 441
 Reading 9.5 Computer security practice = 442
 Artificial intelligence = 446
 Reading 9.6 Legal and ethical issues in artificial intelligence = 446
 Future trends = 449
 Review of key points = 450
 Review questions = 450
 Exercises = 451
 Case studies = 453
  9.1 Australian Red Cross Society = 453
 Text case : TogoToys = 453
Appendix 1 Using DOS = 455
 File names = 455
 Disk drive specification = 455
 Summary of commands = 455
 DOS commands = 456
 Format = 456
 DIR = 456
 Wildcards = 456
 Copy = 457
 DEL = 457
 DISKCOPY = 458
 Exercises = 458
Appendix 2 Using VP Expert = 459
 VP Expert - the main menu = 459
 The CONSULT sub-menu = 459
 The GO sub-menu = 459
 Using HELP = 459
 Tracing a consultation = 460
 Handy commands = 460
 Using examples = 461
 Exercises = 462
Appendix 3 Programming = 463
 Introduction = 463
 Keeping logic simple = 463
  Pseudocode = 464
  Program flowcharting = 466
 Programming languages = 467
 Using BASIC = 469
  Sample Program 1 = 469
  Sample Program 2 = 471
  Using PICK BASIC = 473
 Reading A3.1 INFO / BASIC syntax = 474
 Exercises = 477
Acronym Index = 483
Application Index = 484
Case Study Index = 485
Library Example Index = 486
TogoToys Major Case Index = 487
Author Index = 488
Subject Index = 489


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