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Computers and thought : a practical introduction to artificial intelligence

Computers and thought : a practical introduction to artificial intelligence

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Sharples, Mike, 1952-.
서명 / 저자사항
Computers and thought : a practical introduction to artificial intelligence / Mike Sharples ... [et al.].
발행사항
Cambridge, Mass. :   MIT Pr.,   c1989.  
형태사항
xxix, 401 p. ; 24 cm.
총서사항
Explorations in cognitive science ;5
ISBN
0262192853
일반주기
"A Bradford book."  
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references (p. 387-395) and index.
일반주제명
Artificial intelligence. Cognitive science.
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005 20120615153101
008 890131s1989 mau b 001 0 eng d
020 ▼a 0262192853
040 ▼a 211009 ▼c 211009 ▼d 211009
049 1 ▼l 412678849
050 0 ▼a Q335 ▼b .C57 1989
082 0 4 ▼a 006.3 ▼2 22
084 ▼a 006.3 ▼2 DDCK
090 ▼a 006.3 ▼b C73893
245 0 0 ▼a Computers and thought : ▼b a practical introduction to artificial intelligence / ▼c Mike Sharples ... [et al.].
260 ▼a Cambridge, Mass. : ▼b MIT Pr., ▼c c1989.
300 ▼a xxix, 401 p. ; ▼c 24 cm.
490 1 ▼a Explorations in cognitive science ; ▼v 5
500 ▼a "A Bradford book."
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references (p. 387-395) and index.
650 0 ▼a Artificial intelligence.
650 0 ▼a Cognitive science.
700 1 ▼a Sharples, Mike, ▼d 1952-.
830 0 ▼a Explorations in cognitive science ; ▼v 5.

소장정보

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 중앙도서관/서고6층/ 청구기호 006.3 C73893 등록번호 412678849 도서상태 대출가능 반납예정일 예약 서비스 B M

컨텐츠정보

목차


CONTENTS
1 Towards Artifrcial Intelligence = 1
 1.1 What Is Artificial Intelligence? = 1
 1.2 Machine Models of Mind = 2
 1.3 The Mind as Machine = 8
 1.4 Intelligent Machines = 14
 1.5 Beyond Symbol Processors = 19
 1.6 Conclusion = 21
 1.7 Appendix: Programming in POP-11 = 21
  1.7.1 Automated Tourist Guide = 21
  1.7.2 Data Objects = 22
  1.7.3 Commands = 23
  1.7.4 Procedures = 25
  1.7.5 Mishaps = 25
  1.7.6 Variables = 26
  1.7.7 Assignment = 26
  1.7.8 User-Defined Procedures = 28
 1.8 Exercises = 31
2 Perfomance without Knowledge = 33
 2.1 A Conversation with a Computer = 33
 2.2 Analyzing Eliza = 38
 2.3 Inside Eliza = 40
  2.3.1 Patterns = 41
  2.3.2 Choices in Eliza = 43
 2.4 What Eliza Lacks = 44
 2.5 What Use Is Eliza? = 46
 2.6 Conclusion = 47
 2.7 Appendix: A Program to Hold a Conversation = 47
  2.7.1 Pattern Matching = 48
  2.7.2 Deciding What to Do = 49
  2.7.3 A Simple Eliza-Like Tourist Guide = 51
  2.7.4 A Complete Eliza Program = 53
 2.8 Exercises = 55
3 Stored Knowledge = 59
 3.1 The Importance of Stored Knowledge = 59
 3.2 Specialized versus Commonsense Knowledge = 61
 3.3 Styles of Knowledge Representation = 63
  3.3.1 Perdicate Logic = 63
  3.3.2 Semantic Networks = 65
  3.3.3 Production Systems = 67
  3.3.4 Frames and Scripts = 69
 3.4 Two Models of AI = 73
 3.5 Blocks-World Programs and Internal Representations = 74
  3.5.1 Knowledge of the MSBLOCKS World = 79
  3.5.2 Knowledge of Possible Actions = 82
 3.6 Conclusion = 84
 3.7 Appendix: Representing Knowledge = 85
  3.7.1 Some Procedures to Access the Database = 86
  3.7.2 A Revised Version of the answer Procedure = 90
  3.7.3 Using Variables in Patterns = 93
  3.7.4 Reviewing the answer Procedure = 95
 3.8 Exercises = 97
4 Search = 99
 4.1 The Idea of Search = 99
 4.2 Computer Search = 100
  4.2.1 Finding a Route on the Underground = 101
  4.2.2 The Tree Structure of Search = 106
  4.2.3 Solving a Jigsaw = 108
  4.2.4 Search Strategies = 108
  4.2.5 State Space = 111
  4.2.6 Playing Games = 111
  4.2.7 The Game of Quadripawn = 113
  4.2.8 Quicker Searching = 117
 4.3 The Limitations of Search = 118
 4.4 Conclusion = 119
 4.5 Appendix: Programming Route Finding = 119
  4.5.1 Carrying Out the Search = 121
  4.5.2 Tracing the Route = 126
 4.6 Exercises = 127
5 Natural Language = 129
 5.1 The Cognitive Complexity of Language = 129
 5.2 Syntax = 132
  5.2.1 Sentence Matching = 133
  5.2.2 Pattern Matching = 134
  5.2.3 Grammars = 135
 5.3 Semantics = 151
  5.3.1 The Meaning of Words = 152
  5.3.2 The Meaning of Phrases = 153
  5.3.3 Answering Questions = 158
 5.4 Pragmatics = 161
  5.4.1 Speech Acts = 161
  5.4.2 Commonsense Knowledge = 162
 5.5 Producing a Reply = 163
 5.6 Conclusion = 164
 5.7 Appendix: Answering Qusetions = 165
  5.7.1 A Sentence Recognizer = 168
  5.7.2 A Sentence Parser and Database Query Generator = 170
 5.8 Exercises = 174
6 Reasoning = 177
 6.1 Reasoning with Stored Knowledge = 177
 6.2 Reasoning with Semantic Nets = 180
  6.2.1 What Are Semantic Networks? A Little Light History = 181
  6.2.2 A Description of Semantic Networks = 187
  6.2.3 Some Interpretations of Nodes and Links = 191
 6.3 Conclusion = 192
 6.4 Appendix: Inferences with a Semantic Net = 193
  6.4.1 The connects Link = 193
  6.4.2 The isa Link = 194
 6.5 Exercises = 197
7 Rule-Based Knowledge = 199
 7.1 Looking into the Black Box = 199
 7.2 Protocol Analysis: Fillng on the Black Box = 202
 7.3 Production Systems: Simulating the Black Box = 206
  7.3.1 The Working Memory = 206
  7.3.2 The Rulebase = 206
  7.3.3 The Production System Interpreter = 209
 7.4 Production Systems and Artificial Intelligence = 210
  7.4.1 Production Systems Are Flexible = 211
  7.4.2 Production Systems Are Modular = 211
  7.4.3 Production Systems Are Plausible = 213
 7.5 Conclusion = 214
 7.6 Appendix: Production Rules = 215
  7.6.1 Using a Production System in the Automated Tourist Guide = 217
 7.7 Exercises = 220
8 Models of Cognition = 223
 8.1 Building Minds = 223
  8.1.1 Qualities of the Human Mind = 224
  8.1.2 Limitations of the Human Mind = 225
 8.2 Computer Models of Mind = 226
  8.2.1 Errors in Children's Subtraction = 227
  8.2.2 Anderson's ACT = 231
  8.2.3 Learning the Past Tense of English Verbs = 234
  8.2.4 Connetionist Models = 243
 8.3 Two Models of Cognition = 244
 8.4 Conclusion = 245
 8.5 Appendix: The Tourist Guide and Human Tourists = 245
 8.6 Exercises = 249
9 Computer Vision = 251
 9.1 Finding the Underground = 251
 9.2 A Seeing Machine = 251
  9.2.1 Digitized Images = 254
  9.2.2 Internal Representation = 256
 9.3 Method 1: Template Matching = 256
  9.3.1 Dealing with Defferences in Viewing Angld and Size = 258
  9.3.2 Dealing with Variations Due to Lighting = 261
 9.4 Method 2: Matching Descriptions = 265
  9.4.1 Regions and Edges = 266
  9.4.2 Matching = 267
 9.5 Describing Shape and Position = 273
 9.6 Conclusion = 274
 9.7 Appendix: Recognizing an Underground Sign = 274
  9.7.1 A POP-11 Procedure to Find Regions = 280
 9.8 Exercises = 281
10 AI and the Philosophy of Mind = 283
 10.1 Mind and Body = 283
 10.2 Consciousness and the Puzzle of Other Minds = 286
 10.3 Syntax, Semantics, and Intentionality = 289
 10.4 The Intentional Stance = 291
 10.5 Searle's Chinese Room = 292
 10.6 Responding to Searle = 296
 10.7 Artefacts = 298
 10.8 'Pure' and 'Impure' Functionalism = 300
 10.9 AI as an Account of Mind = 302
11 Artificial Intelligence-What Next? = 305
 11.1 Commercial Expert Systems = 305
 11.2 The Fifth Generation Initiative = 306
 11.3 The New Connectionists = 309
 11.4 Into the Future = 310
  11.4.1 The Optimistic View = 311
  11.4.2 The Pessimistic View = 312
 11.5 Computers and Thought = 316
Appendix A The POP-11 Reference Guide = 317
Appendix B The Automated Tourist Guide = 325
Glossary = 351
Suggested Readings = 379
References = 387
Index = 396


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