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Economics 4th ed

Economics 4th ed

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Lipsey, Richard G., 1928- Steiner, Peter Otto , 1922- joint author.
서명 / 저자사항
Economics / Richard G. Lipsey, Peter O. Steiner.
판사항
4th ed.
발행사항
New York :   Harper & Row,   [c1975].  
형태사항
xxv, 964 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
0060440082
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references and index.
일반주제명
Economics.
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001 000000109897
005 20030916104817
008 741025s1975 nyua b 001 0 eng
010 ▼a 74023392
020 ▼a 0060440082
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d m.c. ▼d 211009
049 1 ▼l 422303016 ▼f 과학 ▼l 121077296 ▼f 과학
050 0 ▼a HB171.5 ▼b .L733 1975
082 0 0 ▼a 330
090 ▼a 330 ▼b L767e4
100 1 ▼a Lipsey, Richard G., ▼d 1928- ▼w cn
245 1 0 ▼a Economics / ▼c Richard G. Lipsey, Peter O. Steiner.
250 ▼a 4th ed.
260 ▼a New York : ▼b Harper & Row, ▼c [c1975].
300 ▼a xxv, 964 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 25 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and index.
650 0 ▼a Economics.
700 1 0 ▼a Steiner, Peter Otto , ▼d 1922- ▼e joint author. ▼w dn.

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컨텐츠정보

목차


CONTENTS
Preface = xii
Suggested Outline for a One-Semester Course = xxvii
ONE THE NATURE OF ECONOMICS = 1
1. THE Economic Problem = 3
 ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE SEVENTIES = 4
 WHAT IS ECONOMICS? = 6
 Scarcity = 7
 Choice = 7
 A Classification of Economic Problems = 9
 Economics : A Working Definition 12 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC POLICY = 12
 The Pervasiveness of Policy Decisions = 12
 The Relation Between Ends and Means = 13
 Confilicts of Policy = 15
 Economic and Political Objectives = 15
 SUMMARY = 15
2. Economics as a Social Science
 The Distinction Between Positive and Normative = 18
 The Scientific Approach = 20
 Is Human Behavior Predictable? = 20
 The Nature of Scientific Theories = 22
 What Is a Theory and How Is It Tested? = 23
 Economics as a Developing Science = 25
 The Interaction of Deduction and Measurement = 25
 SUMMARY = 26
3. The Methods of Economics = 28
EXPRESSING HYPOTHESES : THE CONCEPT OF A FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP = 28
 Variables = 29
 Functional Forms : How Variables Are Related = 30
 Functions of Many Variables = 31
 Should Economics Use Mathematical Formulations? = 31
 "Error Terms" in Economic Hypotheses = 31 
 Deriving Implications from Hypotheses = 32
 THE ROLE OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS = 33
 Laboratory Sciences = 33
 Nonlaboratory Sciences = 34
 The Statistical Testing of Economic Theories : an Example = 34
 Evaluating the Evidence = 39
 The Decision to Reject or Accept = 39 
 SUMMARY = 40
 Appendix to Chapter 3 Common Techniques and Conventions = 43
 Index Numbers = 43
 Graphing Economic Observations = 46
 Graphing Functions = 49
 Some Further Distinctions and Conventions = 53
 Some Conventions in Functional Notation = 56
4. An Overview of the Economy = 59
 The Decision Makers = 60
 Markets = 61
 HOW INDIVIDUAL MARKETS WORK : AN OVERVIEW OF MICROECONOMICS = 63
 The Circular Flow : from Microeconomics to Macroeconomics = 65
 THE NATURE OF THE NATURE OF THE CIRCULAR FLOW : AN OVERVIEW OF MACRO ECONOMICS = 65
 SUMMARY = 68
TWO A GENERAL VIEW OF THE PRICE SYSTEM
5. Demand, supply, and Price = 73
 THE BASIC THEORY OF DEMAND = 73
 What Determines the Quantity Demanded? = 74
 The Quantity of a Commodity Demanded and Its Own Price = 76
 Shifts in the Demand Curve = 77
 THE BASIC THEORY OF SUPPLY = 80
 What Determines the Quantity Supplied? = 81
 The Quantity of a Commodity Supplied and Its Own Price = 83
 Shifts in the Supply Curve = 83
 THE DETERMINATION OF PRICE BY DEMAND AND SUPPLY = 84
 The " Laws" of Supply and Demand = 86
 Laws, Predictions, Hypotheses = 87
 SUMMARY = 87
6. Elasticity of Demand and Supply = 90
DEMAND ELASTICITY = 90
 Elasticity : a Measure of the Responsiveness of Quantity Demanded to Price Changes = 92
 Nomenclature of Demand Elasticity = 95
 Other Demand Elasticities = 97
 ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY = 99
 SUMMARY = 99
 Appendix to Chapter 6 A Formal Analysis of Elasticity = 101
 Arc Elasticity = 101
 Point Elasticity = 103
7. Price Controls, the Volunteer Army, and Agricultural Problems = 105
 PRICE CONTROLS = 106
 Setting Maximum Prices = 106
 Setting Minimum Prices = 108
 THE VOLUNTEER ARMY VERSUS THE DRAFT = 110
 Effects of Alternative Methods = 110
 Evaluation of Alternatives = 113
 THE PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE = 115
 Fluctuations and Trends in Prices and Incomes = 116
 How Agricultural Surpluses May Become Chronic, and Agriculture a Depressed Sector = 121
 Agricultural Stabilization and Support Plans = 122
 Farmers : Small and Large, Rich and Poor = 126
 Has the Farm Problem Been Solved? = 127
 SUMMRY = 128
 Appendix to Chapter 7 Elements of Dynamics = 131
 Supply Lags = 131
 Brussels Sprouts Once Again = 132
 The Cobweb-13 The Relevance of Statics and Dynamics in Evaluating the Price System = 135
THREE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND
8. Household Consumption Behavior = 139
 The Relation Between Market and Household Demand Curves = 139
 THE MARGINAL UTILITY THEORY OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOR = 140
 Marginal and Total Utility = 140
 Maximizing Utility = 142
 Applying the Distinction Between Marginal and Total Utility = 145
 HOUSEHOLD CHOICE : AN ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS = 151
 The Budget Line = 151
 Indifference Curve Analysis = 153
 SUMMARY = 160
 Appendix to Chapter 8 More on the Theory of Household Behavior = 162
 A Further Look at Index Numbers = 162
 The Slope of the Demand = 178
 Demand Theory : the Future = 181
 SUMMARY = 182
FOUR PRODUCTION AND COST = 185
10. The Firm, Production, and Cost = 187
 THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION = 188
 Proprietorships, Partnerships, and Corporations = 188
 The Rise of the Modern Corporation = 190
 The Firm in Economic Theory = 190
 Technical Versus Economic Efficiency : an Example = 193
 THE MEANING AND MEASUREMENT OF COST = 194
 Opportunity Cost More Generally = 195
 The Measurment of Opportunity Cost by the Firm = 196
 PROFITS : THEIR MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE = 199
 SUMMARY = 200
 Appendix to Chapter 10 Balance Sheets, Income Statements, and Costs of Production : Two Views = 203
 An Example = 203
 An Accountant's Balance Sheet and Income Statement = 204
 An Economist's Balance Sheet and Income Statement = 205
11. Cost and Supply in the Short Rum = 208
 REAL CHOICES OPEN TO THE FIRM = 209
 Time Horizons for Decision Making = 209
 PRODUCTION AND COST IN THE SHORT RUN = 211
 Tatal, Average, and Marginal Products = 211
 The Batting Average of Ted Williams : Marginal and Lifetime = 214
 Short-Run Variations in Cost = 215
 THE SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR A COMPETITIVE FIRM AND INDUSTRY = 216
 Behavioral Rules for the Profit-maximizing Firm = 217
 Supply Curves = 218
 SUMMARY = 220
12. Cost and Supply in the Long Run = 222
 PRODUCTION AND COST IN THE LONG RUN = 222
 Production Decisions = 222
 The Significance of the Principle of Substitution = 224
 Long-Run Cost Curves = 225
 THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE = 228 
 Jacob Viner's Famous Error = 228
 SUMMARY = 233
 Appendix to Chapter 12 Mare on Production and Cost = 235
 The Production Function and Isoquants = 235
 Production in the Short Run = 236
 Production in the Long Run = 237
 A Change in Factor Prices, and the Principle of Substitution = 238
 Long-RUN Variations in Output and Cost = 245
13. THE Very Long Run : Progress and Pollution = 248
 THE VERY LONG RUN = 248
 Productivity = 249
 Sources of increasing Productivity = 250
 Invention and Innovation = 252
 The Causes of Invention = 253
 Past and Future Productvity Growth = 254
 SOCIAL COST = 255
 Cost to Whom? = 255
 Pollution = 256
 Externalities = 258
 Who Is To Blame? = 260
 The Significance of Divergencies Between Social and Private Costs = 260
 SUMMARY = 261
 FIVE MARKETS AND PRICING = 265
14. Pricing in Competitive Markets = 267
 The Significance of Market Structure = 268
 The Theory of Perfect Competition = 268
 The "Traditional" Assumptions of Perfect Competition : a Historical Digression = 269
 Entry, Exit, and the Long-Run Equillbrium of a Competitive Industry = 273
 Can There Be Differences Among Competitive Firms? = 275
 SUMMARY = 277
15. Pricing in Monopoly Markets = 279
 A MONOPOLIST SELLING AT A SINGLE PRICE = 279
 The Monopolist's Revenue Curves = 279
 Profit Maximization in a Monopolized Market = 281
 THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF MONOPOLY POWER = 284
 Can There Be a " Perfect Monopoly"? = 285
 Measuring Monopoly Power = 286
 PRICE DISCRIMINATION = 287
 Why Price Discrimination Pays = 287
 When Is Price Discrimination Possible? = 288
 The Positive Effects of Price Discrimination = 289
 The Normative Aspects of Price Discrimination = 289
 Price Discrimination : Systematic and Unsystematic = 291
 SUMMARY = 291
16. Industrial Organization and Theories of Imperfect Competition = 294
 STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN ECONOMY = 295
 Patterns of Conentration in Manufacturing = 296
 THE THEORY OF MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION = 297
 The Formal Theory = 298
 Predictions of the Theory = 299
 How Important Is the Theory of Monopolistic Competition? = 301
 COMPETITION AMONG THE FEW : THE THEORY OF OLIGOPOLY = 302
 Developing Theoretical Models by Assuming How Firm React = 302
 Generalizing from Hypotheses About Observed Behavior = 303
 Barriers to Entry = 305
 Price Inflexibility : Is There a Kinked Demand Cure? = 308
 SUMMARY = 309
17. Price Theory in Action = 312
 BOYCOTTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON MARKET PRICE = 312
 The 1973 Meat Boycott = 312
 Results of the Boycott = 313
 THE ATTEMPT TO MONOPOLIZE PERFECTLY COMPETITIVE INDUSTRIES = 315
 The Instability of Produers' Co-ops = 315
 Milk Withholding in Wisconsin = 317
 The Price of Haircuts = 318
 Are Barbers Monopolistically Competitive? = 319
 The Decline and Fallof a Patent Monopoly = 320 
 IS OLIGPOLY THEORY NECESSARY? = 321
 Cigarettes = 322
 Steam-Turbine Generators = 322
 Mixtures of Market Structures = 323
 SUMMARY = 323
18. Monopoly Versus Competition : Implications About Performance and Policy = 326
 COMPARISONS BETWEEN MONOPOLY AND COMPETITION = 326
 The Effect of Changes in Cost on Price and Quantity Produced = 326
 The Monopolization of a Competitive Industry = 327
 The Optimality of Competition = 328
 The Noneconomic Appeal of Competition = 330
 The Effect of Market Stucture on Cost = 331
 The Incentive to Innovate = 321
 PUBLIC POLICY TOWARD MONOPOLY : ANTITRUST = 333
 The Nature of Antitrust Policy = 334
 쫴Makes Our Antitrust Policies? = 334
 Principal Antitrust Provisions = 335
 The Success of Antitrust Policy = 339
 Economics and the Law = 339
 PUBLIC POLICY TOWARD MONOPOLY : PUBLIC-ULILITY REGULATION = 341
 Problems of Implementing the Theory = 342
 SUMMARY = 344
19. Who Runs the Firm and for What Ends? = 347
 WHO CONTROLS THE MODERN CORPORATION? = 348
 The Hypothesis of Minority Control = 348
 The Hypothesis of the Separation of Ownership from Contol = 349
 The Hypothesis of Intercorporate Control Groups = 350
 CRITISM OF THE ECONOMIST'S CONCEPT OF "THE FILM" = 351
 Information and the Modern Firm = 351
 The Organization of the Firm = 352
 The Motivation of the Firm = 353
 DOES THE FIRM MANIPULATE THE MARKET? = 356
 SUMMARY = 360
 SIX FACT = 363
20. The Distribution of National Income = 365
 Problems of Distribution = 365
 The Theory of Distribution = 368
 THE DEMAND FOR FACTORS = 368
 What Determines the Demand Curve for a Factor? = 369
 The Derivation of Demand for Factors = 370
 THE SUPPLY OF FACTORS = 371
 Comments Applicable to All Factors = 372
 Land and Natural Resources = 374
 Capital = 375
 Labor = 376
 Labor Mobility and Immobility = 378
 THE PRICE OF FACTORS iN COMPETITIVE MARKETS = 379
 Factor-Price Differentials = 379
 Transfer Earnings and Economic Rent = 380
 Policy Implications of the Distinction Between Rents and Transfer Earnings = 383
 SUMMARY = 384
21. Labor Unions, Collective Bargaining, Discrimination and the Determination of Wages = 387
 THEORETICAL MODELS OF WAGE DETERMINATION = 388
 A Union in a Competitive Labor Market = 388
 A Monopsonistic Labor Market = 389
 LABOR MARKET INSTITUTIONS = 390
 THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN UNION = 393
 Requirements of a Successful Union = 395
 Poverty, United States, 1903 = 395
 The Historical Development of American Unions = 396
 METHODS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MODERN UNION = 399
 Restricting Supply to Increase Wages = 399
 Competing Goals = 400 
 DISCRIMINATION AND WAGES = 402
 Economic Discrimination = 404
 Is Economic Discrimination Possible in Competition? = 404
 SUMMARY = 406
22. Interest and the return on Capital = 408
 THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL = 408
 The Return on Capital = 409
 The Value of an Asset = 411
 Human Capital = 412
 A SIMPLE THEORY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN INTEREST AND THE RETURN ON CAPITAL = 412
 The Demand for Capital by a Firm = 412
 The Aggregate Demand for Capital Stock = 413
 The Simple Theory as a Theory of the Market Rate of Interest = 414
 Actual Versus Nominal Interest Rates = 416
 SOURCES OF FUNDS FOR INVESTMENT = 418 
 Financing the Modern Corporation = 418
 Securities Markets (Stock Markets) = 420
 The Relation Between Prices and Earnings = 421
 SUMMARY = 426
23. Inequality, Mobility, and Poverty = 429
 QUESTIONS ABOUT THE THEORY of DISTRIBUTION = 429
 The Theory Restated = 429
 Two Important Misconceptions = 430
 Is the Theory Irrelevant? = 431
 Do Market Conditions Determine Factor Earnings? = 431
 Wages and Unemployment : Alternative Allocational Devices = 434
 Do Factors Move in Response to Changes in Earnings? = 435
 Does the Theory Explain the Functional Distribution of Income? = 436
 THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME BETWEEN RICH AND POOR : THE PROBLEM POVERTY = 437
 Who Are the Poor? = 438
 Why Are There Poor? = 439
 Black Poverty = 440
 Waging Waron Poverty = 440
 Scope and Adequacy of Present Programs = 442 
 SUMMARY = 443
 SEVEN THE MARKET ECONOMY : PROBLEMS AND POLICIES = 447
24. The Price System : Market Success and Market Failure = 449 
 THE INTERDEPENDENT ECONOMY = 449
 When Markets Work Well = 451
 How the Price System Works : the Notion of Strike of 1970 : a Case of Interactions = 454
 MARKET FAILURE = 455
 Sources of Market Failure = 456
 Coping with Market Failure = 458
 Avoiding Undesirable Externalities and the "Coase Theorem" = 461
 IS Recycling a Waste? = 463
 Pollution Control = 464
 SUMMARY = 466
 Appendix to Chapter 24 Input-Output Analysis = 469
 An Input-Output Table = 469
 Applications and Limitations of Input-Output Analysis = 472 
 SUMMARY = 473
25. Public Finance and Public Expenditure : Tools of Microeconomic Policy = 474
 PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION = 474
 Tax Policy and the Distibution of Income = 474
 Tax Structure and the Allocation of Resources = 479
 Do Landlords or Tenants pay the Property Tax? = 481
 PUBLIC EXPENDITURES AS A TOOL OF MICRO POLICY = 485
 Types of Governmental Expenditures = 485
 Should Higher Education Be Government Expenditures = 492
 AN OVERVIEW OF MICROECONOMIC POLICY = 494
 SUMMARY = 495
 ELGHT THE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL OF NATIONAL INCOME = 499
26. National Income = 501
 THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL INCOME = 502
 The Spendthrift Economy = 502
 Value Added, Value of Output, and Factor Incomes : an Example = 504
 Value Added Through stages of Production = 505
 The Frugal Economy = 506
 The Governed Economy = 508
 The Open Economy = 509
 A Summary of Appraaches to Measuring the GNP = 510 
 INTERPRETING NATIONAL INCOME MEASURES = 511
 Major Characteristics of GNP = 511
 A Measure of Economic Welfare = 515
 Which Measure Is Best? = 517 
 SUMMARY = 517
 Appendix to Chapter 26 Measuring National Income = 517
 Sone Definitions = 520
 The Significance of Arbitrary Decisions = 521
 The Output-Expenditure Approach to Measuring GNP = 521
 The Factor-Income or Factor-Payments Approach to Measuring GNP = 523
 Other Measures of National Income = 524
 The Relation Between the Expenditure and the Factor-Payments Approach = 524
 Which Concept Is Best? = 526
 SUMMARY = 526
27. What Determines National Income? = 527
 The Meaning of Full Employment = 530
 A THEORY OF NATIONAL INCOME = 531
 Preliminary definitions and Assumptions = 531
 National Income in the Spendthrift Economy = 532 
 NATIONAL INCOME IN THE FRUGAL ECONOMY = 533
 Investment Decisions = 533
 Consumption-Saving Decisions = 533
 The Aggregate Expenditure Function = 535
 Equilibrium Income = 536
 A Link Between Saving and Investme nt? = 542 
 A GENERALIZATION OF THE THEORY OF EQUILIBRIUM NATIONAL INCOME = 542
 Equilibrium National Income in the Governed Economy = 543
 Equilibrium National Income in the Open Economy = 544
 Equilibrium National Income : a General Graphic Approach = 549
 SUMMARY = 549
28. Changes in National Income = 551
 WHY NATIONAL INCOME CHANGES = 551
 Movements Along Curves Versus Shifts of Curves = 551
 A Shift in the Injection Schedule = 553
 A Shift in the Withdrawal Schedule = 554
 Compensating Shifts in Injections and Withdrawals = 557
 An Alternative Method of Deriving the Basic Predictions = 558
 THE MULTIPLIER : A MEASURE OF THE MAGNITUDE OF CHANGES IN INCOME The Definition of the Multiplier in the United States Today? = 564
 INFLATIONARY AND DEFLATIONARY GAPS = 563
 The "Gaps" Defined = 566
 SUMMARY = 568
29. More on Consumption = 570
 THE KEYNESIAN THEORY OF THE CONSUMPTION FUNCTION = 570
 Consumption and Disposable income = 570
 From Disposable Income to National Income = 572
 Shifts in the Function Relating Consumption and Disposable Income = 573
 EMPIRICAL TESTING OF THE RELATION BETWEEN CONSUMPTION AND INCOME = 575
 THE PERMANENT-INCOME HYPOTHESIS AND THE LIFE-CYCLE HYPOTHESIS = 577
 Variables = 578
 Assumptions = 580
 Implications = 580
 SUMMARY = 582
30. Fluctuations in National Income : Business Cycles and Investment = 584
 FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY = 584
 The Terminology of Business Fluctuations = 586
 Causes of Cycles = 590
 MAJOR CATEGORIES OF INVESTMENT = 592
 Investment in Inventories = 593
 Investment in Residential Construction = 595
 Investment in Plant and Equipment = 595
 The Cost of Buying a House on Time = 596
 CAPITAL STOCK, INVESTMENT, AND THE PART OF INTEREST = 599
 THE ACCELERATOR THEORY OF INVESTMENT = 601
 ELEMENTS OF A THEORY OF FLUCTUATIONS = 604
 Cumulative Movements = 604
 Turning Points = 605
 The Variety in Cyclical Fluctuations = 606
 SUMMARY = 606
31. Theories and Tools of Fiscal Policy = 609
 THE THEORY OF FISCAL POLICY = 610
 Budget Deficits and Surpluses = 610
 Could a Budget Deficit Ever Be Self-eliminating? = 614
 Effects of Changes in the Levels of Expenditures and Taxes : the Balanced-Budget Multiplier = 615
 The Size of the Balanced-Budget Multiplier = 616
 Comparative Effects of Alternative Fiscal Policies = 617
 TOOLS OF FISCAL POLICY = 618
 Automatic Tools of Fiscal Policy : "Built-in Stabilizers" = 618
 Discretionary Fiscal Policy = 621
 SUMMARY = 625
32. Fiscal Policy in Action = 627
 FISCAL POLICY AT WORK IN THE UNITED STATES = 627
 Befor 1946 = 627
 After World War ⅱ = 629
 Fiscal Policy in the Future : What If Peace Broke Out? = 632
 Budgetary Implications of Countercyclical Fiscl Policy = 634
 THE OPPORTUNITY COST OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY = 636
 Effects of Alternative Means of Financing Government Activities = 636
 Who Pays for Wars? = 639 
 THE NATIONAL DEBT = 640
 The Size of the Debt = 641
 SUMMARY = 643
 NINE MONEY, BANKING, AND MONETARY POLICY = 645
33. The Nature and History of Money = 647
 WHAT IS MONEY? = 647
 A Medium of Exchange = 647
 A Store of Value = 648
 A Unit of Account = 649
 KINDS OF MONEY = 649 
 Metallic Money : Its Origins and Growth = 649
 The Evolution of Paper Money = 651
 Deposit Money = 654
 Mear Money and Money Substitutes THE SUPPLY OF MONEY = 657
 SUMMARY = 658
34. The Importance of Money = 660
 The "REAL" AND THE MONEY PARTS OF THE ECONOMY = 660
 Matter = 663
 THE CLASSICAL LINK BETWEEN THE MONEY SUPPLY AND THE PRICE LEVEL : THE QUANYITY THEORY = 666
 The Transactions Demand for Money = 666
 Assumptions of the Quantity Theory = 667
 The Effects of Changes in the Money Supply = 668
 A Formal Statement of the Theory = 669
 A MODERN VIEW OF THE ROLE OF MONEY = 670
 The Velocity of Circulation and Money Balances = 671
 Additional Factors in the Demand for Money = 671
 Effects of Variations in the Money Supply = 674
 The Impact of Monetary Policy = 676
 SUMMARY = 677
35. The Banking Systim and Money Supply = 680
 THE COMMERCIAL BANKS = 680
 Interbank Activities = 681
 Commercial Banks as Profit-seeking Institutions = 682
 THE CREATION AND DESTRUCTION OF DEPOSIT MONEY = 684
 A Monopoly Bank = 685
 Many Banks, a Single New Deposit = 687
 Many Banks, Many Deposits = 688
 Some Complications : Cash Drains, Excess Reserves, and Many Assets = 689
 Money as Debt = 691
 SUMMARY = 692
36. Monetary Policy = 694
 CENTRAL BANKS = 695
 Basic Functions of a Central Bank = 695
 The Federal Reserve Systim = 697
 INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY = 698
 Currency Control = 698
 Open-Market Operations = 699
 Reserve Requirements = 701
 The Discount Rate = 703
 Selective Credit Controls = 705
 Moral Suasion = 707
 OBJECTIVES OF MONETARY POLICY = 707
 Stabilizing National Income Through Monetary Policy = 707
 Targets of Monetary Policy : Money Supply Versus Interest Rates = 708
 Monetary Policy : Some Interim Conclusions = 709
 SUMMARY = 710
 TEN INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FINANCE = 713
37. Exchange Rates = 715
 THE NATURE OF EXCHANGE RATES = 715
 THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS = 718
 The Balance of Actual Payments = 718
 The Balance of Desired Payments = 723
 THE DETERMINATION OF EXCHANGE RATES = 723
 Price Changes Caused by Exchange-Rate Changes = 723
 What Determines the Equilibrium Exchange Rate? = 725
 Fixed Exchange Rates = 726
 Fixed Versus Fluctuating Exchange Rates = 728
 Exchange Rates and National Pride = 729
 SUMMARY = 730
 Appendix to Chapter 37 More About Exchange Rates = 733
 The Possibility of Unstable Rates of Exchange = 733
 Capital Movements = 734
38. The Gains from Trade = 737
 Interpersonal, Interregional, and International Trade = 737
 Sources of the Gains from Trade = 738
 Additional Sources of the Gains from Trade : Learning by Doing and Economies of Scale = 744
 Terms of Trade = 745
 SUMMARY = 745
39. Tariffs = 747
 THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF TARIFFS = 747
 The Case for Free Trade = 748
 The Case for Protectionism = 748
 Free Trade Versus Fully Protective Tariffs = 750
 Free Trade Versus the Level of Tariffs Existing Today = 751
 Fallacious Arguments About Trade and Tariffs = 752
 TRADE AND TARIFFS IN THE UNITED STATES = 756
 SUMMARY = 758
40. International Economic Experience = 761
 HISORICAL BACKGROUND = 761
 The Gold Standard = 761
 The 1930 : a Period of Experimentation = 763
 The Immediate Post-World War ⅱ Period = 764
 The Bretton Woods System = 766
 MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH AN ADJUSTABLE-PEG SYSTEM = 767
 Reserves to Accommodate Short-Term Fluctuations = 767
 Adjusting to Long-Term Disequilibria = 769
 Handling Speculative Crises = 770
 The Collapse of the Bretton Woods System = 771
 THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS Ststem = 777
 Reform with Fixed Rates = 777
 Reform with Flexible Rates = 778
 Who IsRight? = 780
 SUMMARY = 782
 ELEVEN MACROECONOMIC POLICY = 785
41. Stabilization Policy : Tools and Objectives = 787
 VIEWS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICY = 787
 Two Extreme Views = 787
 Monetarist and Neo-Keynesian Views of Stabilization = 788
 THE NATURE OF THE OROBLEM (DIAGNOSES) = 788
 Monetarist Views = 789
 Neo-Keynesian Views = 790
 INSTRUMENTS oF POLICY (THE POTENCY OF VARIOUS MEDICINES) = 792
 Monetarist Views = 792
 Neo-Keynesian Views = 797
 RECOMMENDED POLICIES (PRESCRIPTIONS)
 Some Practical Considerations : Congressional Behavior and the Consumption Function = 799
 Monetarists = 800
 Neo-Keynesians = 800
 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DEBATE = 801
 SUMMARY = 802
 Appendix to Chapter 41 Money in the National Income Model = 804
 The Integrated Model = 804
 An Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy = 807
42. Conflicts of Policy in Developed Countries = 812
 MACROECONOMIC POLICY VARIABLES = 813
 Unemployment = 813
 Changes in the Price Level = 815
 Why Are Policy Makers Concerned About the Balance of Payments? = 822
 Growth = 824
 CONFLICTS OF POLICY = 824
 The Conflict Between Unemployment and Growth (Structural Unemployment) = 825
 The Conflict Between Unemployment and Prices (Phillips Curves) = 829
 The Conflict Between Unemployment and Prices (Phillips Curves) = 829
 The Conflict Between Prices and the Balance of Payments = 834 
 Policy Conflicts in the United States in the 1970s = 835
 The Composition of Macro Variables = 836
 THE PROGRESS OF ECONOMICS = 837
 SUMMARY = 838
 TWELVE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND COMPARATIVE SYSTEM = 841
43. Growth in Developed Economies = 843
 THE NATURE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH = 843
 The Definition of Economic Growth = 844
 The Cumulative Nature of Growth = 845
 Benefits of Growth = 846
 Costs of Growth = 846
 Costs of Growth = 847
 An Open Letter to the Ordinary Citizen from a Supporter of the Growth-Is-Good School = 848
 An Open Letter to the Ordinary Crdinary Citizen from a Supporter of the Growth-Is-Bad School = 851
 Growth as a Goal of Policy : Do the Benefits Justify the Costs? = 852
 THEORIES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH = 853
 Growth in a World Without Learning = 853
 Growth with Learning = 854
 Factors Affecting Growth = 855
 Toward a Modern Theory of Growth = 859
 Are There Limits to Growth? = 859
 SUMMARY = 861
44. Growth and the Underdeveloped Economies = 863
 THE UNEVEN PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT = 863
 BARRIERS TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT = 866
 Population Growth = 866
 Resource Limitations = 867
 Inefficiency in the Use of Resources = 869
 FOSTERING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT = 871
 Planning or Laissez Faire? = 871
 Educational Policy = 873
 Population Control = 873
 Acquiring Capital = 874
 PATTERNG OF DEVELOPMENT = 877
 Comparative Advantage : the Case for Unbalanced Growth = 877
 Agricultural Development Versus Industrialization = 878
 Import Substitution = 880
 Industrialization = 880
 AUNNARY = 881
45. Comparative Economic Systems = 884
 DIFFERENT ECONOMIC SYSTEM = 885
 Ownership of Reasources = 885
 The Decision Process (Coordinating Principles) = 886
 Whose Values? = 887
 Incentive Systems = 888
 Ends and Means = 889
 The Characterization of Particular Economies = 890
 THE ECONOMY OF THE SOVIET UNION = 890
 Ownership = 891
 The Organization of Production = 892
 The Distribution of Goods and Household Incentives = 893
 Planning in the Soviet Union = 894
 Prices in the Planning Process = 896
 Comparative Performance : the United States Versus the Soviet Union = 897
 THE ECONOMY OF YUGOSLAVIA = 901
 The Decollectivization of Agriculture = 902
 Labor-managed Enterprises = 902
 The Scope and Role of Planning = 903
 COMPARATIVE SYSTEMS : A FINAL WORD = 904
 SUMMARY = 904
 MATHEMATICAL NOTES = 908
 GLOSSARY = 918
 Index = 939


관련분야 신착자료

Thaler, Richard H. (2021)
Boudreaux, Donald J (2021)
김인규 (2021)
성태경 (2022)
Mankiw, N. Gregory (2021)
강문성 (2021)
MacKinnon, Danny (2021)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2021)