HOME > 상세정보

상세정보

Handbook of human-computer interaction

Handbook of human-computer interaction

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Helander, Martin , 1943-
서명 / 저자사항
Handbook of human-computer interaction / edited by Martin Helander.
발행사항
Amsterdam ;   New York :   North-Holland ;   New York, N.Y., U.S.A. :   Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co.,   c1988.  
형태사항
xxxiii, 1167 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
ISBN
0444705368 0444886737 (softboound)
일반주기
Includes indexes.  
서지주기
Includes bibliographical references.
일반주제명
Human-computer interaction.
000 00921camuu2200241 a 4500
001 000000109377
005 19990707163357
008 910325s1988 ne a b 001 0 eng d
020 ▼a 0444705368
020 ▼a 0444886737 (softboound)
040 ▼a UMC ▼c UMC
049 1 ▼l 421046574 ▼f R ▼l 421105158 ▼f R ▼l 421113649 ▼f R
050 0 ▼a QA76.9.H85 ▼b H36 1990
082 0 4 ▼a 004.019
090 ▼a 004.019 ▼b H236
245 0 0 ▼a Handbook of human-computer interaction / ▼c edited by Martin Helander.
260 ▼a Amsterdam ; ▼a New York : ▼b North-Holland ; ▼a New York, N.Y., U.S.A. : ▼b Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co., ▼c c1988.
300 ▼a xxxiii, 1167 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 27 cm.
500 ▼a Includes indexes.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references.
650 0 ▼a Human-computer interaction.
700 1 0 ▼a Helander, Martin , ▼d 1943- ▼w 1n.

No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 과학도서관/보존서고1(서양서)/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421105158 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 2 소장처 과학도서관/보존서고1(서양서)/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421113649 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 3 소장처 과학도서관/Infinity Lounge/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421046574 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 4 소장처 세종학술정보원/과학기술실/참고 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 452049414 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 과학도서관/보존서고1(서양서)/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421105158 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 2 소장처 과학도서관/보존서고1(서양서)/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421113649 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 3 소장처 과학도서관/Infinity Lounge/ 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 421046574 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M
No. 소장처 청구기호 등록번호 도서상태 반납예정일 예약 서비스
No. 1 소장처 세종학술정보원/과학기술실/참고 청구기호 R 004.019 H236 등록번호 452049414 도서상태 대출불가(열람가능) 반납예정일 예약 서비스 M

컨텐츠정보

목차

CONTENTS
Ⅰ Models and Theories of Human-Computer Interaction = 1
  1 Cognitive Systems Engineering = 3
    1.1 Introduction = 3
    1.2 What is Cognitive Engineering = 5
    1.3 The Cognitive System Triad = 8
      Demand Characteristics of Problem Solving Habitats = 8
      Mismatches in the Cognitive System Triad : Getting Lost = 10
    1.4 A Sample of Critical Issues in Cognitive Engineering = 11
      What is Expertise and Skill = 11
      Exploration Training = 13
      Human Error and Person-Machine Mismatches = 14
      Brittle Problem Solvers and Unexpected Variability = 17
    1.5 Towards Effective Decision Support = 18
      What is Good Advice? = 19
      Cognitive Tools = 21
      Conceptualization Aids = 25
    1.6 External Representations and Human Problem Solving = 26
      Fixed and Adaptive Collections = 27
      Analogical Representations = 29
      Integral Displays = 30
      Multiple Representations = 32
      A Case in Representations Design = 33
    1.7 Summary = 34
    1.8 References = 34
  2 Mental Models in Human-Computer Interaction = 45
    2.1 Abstract = 45
    2.2 Introduction = 46
    2.3 Models of What, Held by Whom? = 46
    2.4 Types of Representations of Users' Knowledge = 47
      Simple Sequences = 48
      Methods and Ways to Choose Among Them = 48
      Mental Models = 50
      Comparisons = 52
    2.5 How User's Knowledge Affects Their Performance = 54
      Chaos and misconception in both novices and experts = 54
      Skilled performance = 55
    2.6 Applying What we Know of the User's Knowledge to Practical Problems = 56
      Designing Interfaces = 56
      User training = 57
    2.7 Research Recommendations = 59
    2.8 References = 61
  3 Interface Metaphors and User Interface Design = 67
    3.1 Introduction = 67
    3.2 Approaches to Metaphor = 70
      Operational Approaches to Metaphor = 70
      Structural Approaches to Metaphor = 71
      Pragmatic Approaches to Metaphor = 73
      Toward a Theory of Metaphor = 75
    3.3 Designing with Metaphors = 76
      Identify Possible Metaphors from the User's Point of View = 77
      Identify Metaphor/Software Matches with Respect to Representative User Scenarios = 78
      Identify Likely Mismatches and their Implications = 79
      How to Manage Metaphor Mismatches = 80
    3.4 Conclusions = 81
    3.5 References = 81
  4 Five Paradigms in the Psychology of Programming = 87
    4.1 Abstract = 87
    4.2 The Paradigms for Research = 87
    4.3 Individual Differences = 88
      Programming Tests = 88
      Programmer Motivation = 90
      Individual Differences Summary = 90
    4.4 Group Behavior = 91
      Group Behavior Summary = 93
    4.5 Organizational Behavior = 94
      Organizational Behavior Summary = 95
    4.6 Human Factors and Cognitive Ergonomics = 96
      Requirements and Design Aids = 96
      Specification Formats = 96
      Programming Languages = 97
      Human Factors Summary = 98
    4.7 Cognitive Science = 99
      Programming Knowledge Structures = 99
      Learning to Program = 100
      Design Problem Solving = 101
      Cognitive Science Summary = 102
    4.8 Future Directions in Programming = 102
    4.9 References = 103
  5 Software Comprehension = 107
    5.1 Introduction = 107
    5.2 A Review of Software Comprehension Models = 107
    5.3 An Integrative Model of Comprehension = 108
    5.4 Measures of Software Comprehensibility = 109
      Direct Measures = 109
      Indirect Measures = 112
    5.5 Factors Influencing Software Comprehension = 112
      Complexity = 113
      Program Structure = 113
      Program Form = 114
      Problem Type = 115
      Documentation = 115
    5.6 Implications for Software Development = 118
      Complexity = 118
      Program Structure = 118
      Program Form = 118
      Problem Type = 118
      Documentation = 118
    5.7 Conclusions = 119
    5.8 References = 119
  6 Direct Manipulation = 123
    6.1 Direct Manipulation = 123
      Shneiderman's Description of Direct Manipulation = 123
      Hutchins, Hollan and Norman : Direct Manipulation Interfaces = 124
      Direct Manipulation in a Layer Model of Human-Computer Interaction = 124
      Directness = 126
    6.2 Design of Direct Manipulation Interfaces = 127
      Presentation of Information = 127
      Input Devices = 128
      Invoking Functions = 129
      Generic Operations = 130
      Integration of Different Functions = 131
      Empirical Studies = 131
    6.3 References = 132
  7 Towards a Practical GOMS Model Methodology for User Interface Design = 135
    7.1 Introduction = 135
      The Cognitive Complexity Approach = 135
      Problems in Using Cognitive Complexity Models = 136
      A Guide to GOMS Model Construction = 137
      Will the Methods Actually Work? = 137
      Organization of the Chapter = 137
    7.2 Overview of the GOMS Task Analysis Approach = 137
      What is a GOMS Analysis? = 137
      Definitions and a Notation for GOMS Models = 138
      Goals = 138
      Operators = 138
      Methods = 139
      Selection Rules = 140
      Task Descriptions and Task Instances = 140
    7.3 General Issues in GOMS Task Analysis = 141
      Judgment Calls = 141
      Bypassing Complex Processes = 141
      What Tasks Should be Analyzed? = 142
      When Can a GOMS Analysis be Done? = 142
    7.4 A Procedure for Constructing a GOMS Model = 143
      Summary of Procedure = 143
      Detailed Description of Procedure = 144
        Step A. Choose the Top-Level User's Goals and Method = 144
        Step B. Do the Following Recursive Procedure = 144
        Step C. Completing the Analysis = 145
        Step D. Check Sensitivity to Judgment Calls and Assumptions = 145
      Making WM Use Explicit = 146
      An Example of Using the Procedure = 146
      Description of Methods = 146
      Modifications to Show WM Usage = 150
      Completing the Analysis = 151
      Checking Sensitivity to Judgment Calls = 151
    7.5 Using a GOMS Task Analysis = 151
      Qualitative Evaluation of a Design = 151
      Predicting Human Performance with the Design = 152
      Method Learning Time Estimates = 152
      Estimating Execution Time = 154
      Mental Workload = 155
      Suggestions for Revising the Design = 155
      Using the Analysis in Documentation = 156
    7.6 Acknowledgements = 156
    7.7 References = 156
  8 Task Allocation and Supervisory Control = 159
    8.1 Introduction = 159
    8.2 Ten Functions of the Human Supervisor = 162
    8.3 Human Supervisor Attention Allocation and Timing = 167
    8.4 Factors Which Limit our Ability to Model Supervisory Control Systems = 170
    8.5 Social Implications of Supervisory Control = 170
    8.6 Conclusions = 172
    8.7 References = 172
  9 Information Technology and Work = 175
    9.1 Introduction = 175
    9.2 Different Approaches to the Study of Cognitive Systems = 176
      HCI, Human-Computer Interaction = 176
      Cognitive Sciences = 177
      Cognitive Engineering = 177
      Research Problems of Cognitive Engineering = 177
    9.3 Design or Evaluation = 179
    9.4 A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Cognitive Functions = 181
      Problem space = 181
      The decision task = 182
      Mental information Processing strategies = 184
      The user's cognitive level of interpretation = 185
      Some implications of the cognitive functional analysis in design = 185
    9.5 A Specific Example : Process Control = 188
      Knowledge-based Diagnosis = 188
      Rule-based Diagnosis = 190
      Heuristics for State Identification = 192
    9.6 Disturbance Control In Process Plants = 194
    9.7 Concluding Remarks = 200
    9.8 References = 200
Ⅱ User Interface Design = 203
  10 Design of Menus = 205
    10.1 To Menu or Not to Menu = 205
      Defining a Menu-Driven Interface = 205
      Assumed Tradeoffs Betweens Menus and Commands = 206
      Empirical Comparisons of Menus versus Commands = 206
      A Research Strategy for Investigating Interface Type = 209
    10.2 Designing a Single Menu Panel = 209
      Three Types of Search and Comparison Operations = 209
      Identity Matching = 210
      Equivalence Matching = 211
      Class-Inclusion Matching = 212
      Guidelines for Organizing and Naming the Options on a Single Panel = 215
    10.3 Choosing a Selection Technique = 216
      Digit versus Letter Identifiers = 216
      Entering Identifiers versus other Selection Techniques = 217
      Guidelines for Choosing a Selection Technique = 218
    10.4 Organization and Navigation Between Menu Panels = 219
      Depth versus Breadth in a Hierarchical Menu Structure = 219
      Aids to Navigation = 225
      Guidelines for Organizing the Entire Set of Menu Panels = 232
    10.5 Author Notes = 233
    10.6 References = 233
  11 Command Names = 237
    11.1 Introduction = 237
    11.2 Designing Namesets = 238
      What Designers Need to Keep in Mind = 239
      What People Do when they Create Names = 239
      What Designers Do when they Create Names = 240
    11.3 Experimental Contributions = 241
      Interpreting Experiments = 241
      Differing Designs of Command Namesets Used in Research = 242
      Differing Characteristics of Participants in the Differing Task Domains of Research Experiments = 243
      Differing Measures of User Performance = 244
      Summary = 245
      Natural Names versus System-oriented or Arbitrary Names = 245
      Attributes of Names : Specificity, Frequency and Concreteness = 245
      Abbreviation = 246
      Effects of Nameset on Individual Names = 247
      Effects of Task Structure on the Use of Names = 248
    11.4 Using Research Knowledge in Design : Guidelines, Tools, and Models = 249
      Guidelines = 249
      Background : Choosing and Structuring a Command Language = 249
      Naming to Facilitate the Name-Operation Mapping = 249
      Naming to Anticipate User Variability and Permit Customization = 250
      Context of Command Name Use : Layout, Prompts, Help = 250
      Designing the System for User Error = 250
      Tools and Models = 250
    11.5 Design Problems, Approaches, and Unexplored Topics = 251
    11.6 Acknowledgment = 252
    11.7 References = 252
  12 Query Language = 257
    12.1 Introduction = 257
    12.2 Basic Notions = 258
      Query Languages = 258
      Language Design Issues = 258
    12.3 Measuring Ease-Of-Use = 260
      Human Factors Methodology = 260
      Human Factors Methodology Applied to Query Languages = 260
    12.4 Query Language Experiments = 260
      Evaluating Query Languages = 261
      SQL = 261
      QBE = 262
      Comparing Two or More Languages = 263
      Investigating Basic Issues = 264
      Data Models = 265
      A Data Model Comparison Without Query Language = 266
    12.5 Improving Query Language Design = 267
      Identifying Problems = 267
      Isolating Causes = 268
      Suggesting Improvements = 269
    12.6 Models = 270
      Users' Conceptual Models = 270
      Models of the Process of Query Writing = 270
    12.7 Recent Trends = 271
      Comparing Formal Query Languages = 271
      Comparing Natural Language with Formal Language Querying = 272
      Improving Query Language Design = 273
      Comparing Data Models = 273
      Pragmatics of Testing = 273
      User Studies and Models = 273
      Predictive Models = 274
    12.8 Implications For Design of Computer Systems = 274
      What Do We Know = 274
      Assessing the Numerical Results = 275
      Assessing the Claims = 275
    12.9 Some Research Directions = 276
    12.10 Acknowledgments = 277
    12.11 References = 277
  13 Using Natural Language Interfaces = 281
    13.1 Introduction = 281
      Habitability = 282
    13.2 Evaluation Issues = 283
    13.3 Evaluations of Prototype and Commercial Systems = 284
      Laboratory Evaluations = 285
      Field Studies = 287
    13.4 Design Issues = 289
      Artificial versus Natural Language = 289
      What is Natural? = 291
      Restrictions on Vocabulary = 292
      Restrictions on Syntax = 292
      Functional Restrictions = 293
      Effects of Feedback = 294
      Empirically Derived Grammars = 295
    13.5 Design Recommendations = 296
    13.6 Conclusion = 297
    13.7 Acknowledgments = 298
    13.8 References = 298
  14 Systems Design for Automated Speech Recognition = 301
    14.1 Introduction = 301
    14.2 Speech Recognition Technology = 302
      Technological Limitations of Current Systems = 303
      Historic Perspective of the Development of ASR = 304
    14.3 Recognition Accuracy = 304
      Vocabulary Design = 305
      Application Tasks = 306
      Environmental Factors = 306
    14.4 Analysis of Task Composition = 308
    14.5 Speaking Patterns and Training = 309
      Feedback and Error Correction = 310
    14.6 Task Analysis and Implementation of Voice I/O = 311
    14.7 Future Research Needs = 312
      Technological Needs = 312
      Human Factors Research Needs = 313
    14.8 Appendix : Glossary = 314
    14.9 References = 315
  15 Applying Speech Synthesis to User Interfaces = 321
    15.1 Introduction = 321
      Chapter Overview = 322
    15.2 Advantages of Speech Output = 322
      Universality of Spoken Language = 322
      Speech Operates over Distances = 322
      User Free to Process Information in other Modalities = 322
    15.3 Disadvantages of Speech Output = 323
      Large Bandwidth Requirements for Storage and Transmission = 323
      Faster Comprehension of Written than Spoken Language = 323
      Speech in an Interface can be Annoying = 323
    15.4 Talking Tutor : A Good Example of Using Voice Interface = 324
    15.5 Interaction of Application's Vocabulary Demands and the Type of Speech Used = 325
      Vocabulary Demands : Fixed Message vs. Unrestricted Text = 325
      Examples of Applications with Fixed Messages = 325
      Quality of Speech Depends on the Application Demands = 325
    15.6 Unrestricted Text-to-Speech Synthesis = 326
      Major Steps Involved in Text-to-Speech Synthesis = 326
      Transforming Text to a Phonetic Spelling = 327
      Selecting a Basic Unit for Synthesis = 328
      Synthesizing Sentences : Modeling Intonation = 334
      Role of Paralanguage in Synthetic Speech = 336
    15.7 Assessing the Quality of Synthetic Speech = 337
      Traditional Measures of Speech Quality = 337
      Intelligibility of Synthetic Speech = 337
      Increasing the Sensitivity of Evaluation Measures = 338
    15.8 Future Directions in Speech Synthesis = 339
    15.9 Acknowledgements = 340
    15.10 References = 340
  16 Online Aiding for Human-Computer Interfaces = 345
    16.1 Abstract = 345
    16.2 Problems in Online Aiding = 345
    16.3 A Summary of Prototypical Online Aiding Dialogues = 346
      Online Assistance Dialogues = 347
      Online Instructional Dialogues = 350
    16.4 A Research and Design Framework for Online Aiding = 353
      A Theory-Based Task-Analytic Model for Online Aiding = 354
      Predicting Usability for Online Aiding = 359
      Predicting usability problems for online aiding = 359
    16.5 Conclusions = 361
    16.6 Acknowledgments = 362
    16.7 References = 362
  17 Graphic Challenges in Designing Object-oriented User Interfaces = 365
    17.1 Introduction = 365
    17.2 Object-Oriented Direct Manipulation and Enabling Technologies = 365
    17.3 Graphic Challanges = 366
      Old Problems = 366
      New Problems = 367
    17.4 Illustrations = 367
      The Illusion Of Manipulable Objects = 367
      Visual Order and User Focus = 368
      Revealed Structure = 370
      Consistent and Appropriate Graphic Vocabulary = 371
      Match the Medium = 371
    17.5 Symbolic and Analogic User Interfaces = 372
    17.6 Speculations = 374
    17.7 Acknowledgements = 374
    17.8 Notes on References = 375
    17.9 References = 375
  18 Screen Design = 377
    18.1 Introduction = 377
      Importance of Screen Design = 377
      Historical Perspective = 377
      An Overview of the Literature = 378
    18.2 Screen Design Issues and Techniques = 382
      Amount of Information to Present = 382
      Grouping of Information = 387
      Highlighting of Information = 391
      Placement and Sequence of Information = 393
      Spatial Relationships among Elements = 395
      Presentation of Text = 397
      Uses of Graphics = 399
    18.3 The Screen Design Process = 404
      Requirements and Constraints Analysis = 405
      Task Analysis and Scenario Development = 405
      Development of Design Rules = 405
      Development of Implementation Philosophy = 405
      Early Design, Prototyping, and Evaluation = 405
      Full-scale Prototyping and Implementation = 406
    18.4 Future Directions = 406
    18.5 References = 407
  19 Taking Panes : Issues in the Design of Windowing Systems = 413
    19.1 Introduction = 413
      The Appeal of Windowing = 414
      Constraints on the Design of Windowing Systems = 415
      An Empirical Investigation of the Value of Windowing = 418
    19.2 Characterizing Windowing Systems = 419
      Presentation Styles = 419
      Interaction Styles = 423
      Set of Operations = 426
    19.3 Future Directions = 432
      Grouping Windows : Workspaces, Working Sets, and Rooms = 432
      User-customized Windows = 432
      User Training Techniques = 433
    19.4 Research Agenda and Conclusions = 433
    19.5 References = 434
  20 Image Quality = 437
    20.1 Introduction = 437
    20.2 Theoretical Bases and Relevant Research = 438
      Spatial Vision = 439
      Spatial Image Quality = 444
      Temporal Vision = 451
      Chromatic Vision = 454
    20.3 Applications to Computer System Display Design = 458
      Resolution = 458
      Raster Modulation/Active Area = 461
      Luminance and Contrast = 462
      Polarity = 463
      Image Stability(Jitter) = 463
      Flicker = 464
      Color Selection and Contrast = 465
      Character Design = 465
      Text Spacing = 467
      Glare Control = 467
    20.4 Future Developments = 469
      Flat Panel Displays = 469
      Stereoscopic Displays = 470
      Touch Input Devices = 470
      Virtual Image Displays = 471
      Image Quality Measurement = 472
    20.5 Acknowledgements = 472
    20.6 References = 472
  21 Keys and Keyboards = 475
    21.1 Introduction = 475
      Design Criteria = 476
    21.2 Keyboard Layouts = 476
      The QWERTY Layout = 476
      The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Layout = 476
      Conclusions on Dvorak Simplified Keyboard = 478
      Alphabetical Keyboards = 479
      Other Keyboard Layouts = 479
    21.3 Data-Entry Keypads = 479
      Layout of Numbers and Letters = 480
      Multifunction Keypads = 480
    21.4 Physical Features of Keys and Keyboards = 481
      Keyboard Height and Slope = 481
      Size of the Keyboard = 482
      Detachable Keyboards = 482
      Keyboard Profile = 483
      Key Size and Shape = 483
      Key Force, Travel and Tactile Feedback = 484
      Auditory Feedback = 485
      Visual Feedback = 486
      Error-Avoidance Features = 486
      Color and Labeling = 487
    21.5 Innovations in Keyboard Design = 487
      Split and Tilt Keyboards = 487
      New Methods of Typing = 490
    21.6 Summary = 491
    21.7 Acknowledgements = 491
    21.8 References = 491
  22 Input Devices = 495
    22.1 Introduction = 495
    22.2 Design Considerations = 496
      Touch Screen Devices = 496
      Touch Screen Applications = 499
      Light Pens = 500
      Graphic Tablets = 501
      Applications = 504
      Mice = 504
      Trackballs = 506
      Joysticks = 507
    22.3 Novel Input Techniques = 508
      Pro Pointer = 509
      Footmouse = 509
      Eye-controlled Input = 509
      Gesture-based Input = 510
    22.4 Empirical Comparisons = 511
      Target Acquisition Tasks = 511
      Menu and Text Selection Tasks = 512
      Text Entering and Editing Tasks = 513
      Continuous Tracking Tasks = 514
    22.5 Conclusion = 514
    22.6 References = 516
  23 VDT Workstation Design = 521
    23.1 Introduction = 521
    23.2 A Problem With Many Interactions = 522
    23.3 Work Task = 522
    23.4 The Person = 523
    23.5 Positioning The Body Relative To The Computer = 524
    23.6 Body Postures = 526
    23.7 "Healthy" Body Postures = 526
    23.8 Experimental Studies = 528
    23.9 Sitting Postures and Workstation Design = 531
    23.10 Ergonomic Design of VDT Workstations = 532
      Seat Design = 534
      Visual Targets = 535
      Adjustment Features = 535
      Stand-up Workstations = 535
    23.11 Summary = 536
    23.12 References = 536
Ⅲ Individual Differences and Training = 541
  24 Individual Differences In Human-Computer Interaction = 543
    24.1 Introduction = 543
      Plan for This Chapter = 543
    24.2 How Big are Individual Differences in Human-Computer Interaction? = 544
      Selecting Computer-Based Tasks to Analyze = 544
      Statistics to Characterize Individual Differences = 544
      Text Editing Performance = 546
      Information Search = 547
      Programming = 549
      Summary = 551
      Putting these Results into Perspective = 551
    24.3 What Predicts Differences in Performance? = 552
      Experience = 552
      Technical Aptitudes = 553
      Other Aptitudes = 555
      Discussion of the Effects of Aptitudes = 555
      Age = 556
      Domain Specific Knowledge = 557
      Personality and Affect = 557
      Which Predictors Make a Big Difference? = 558
    24.4 Accommodating User Differences = 558
      Robust Interfaces = 558
      User Prototypes = 560
      Adaptive Trainer Systems = 561
      Automated "Mastory Learning" = 562
    24.5 Goals in Designing for User Differences = 564
      Goal #1 : Aid Users Experiencing Greatest Difficulty = 564
      Goal #2 : Enable Users to Exploit Domain Knowledge = 564
      Achieving the Design Goals = 565
      Conclusion = 565
    24.6 Acknowledgements = 565
    24.7 References = 565
  25 From Novice to Expert = 569
    25.1 Introduction = 569
      Types of Knowledge in Human-Computer Interaction = 569
      Computer Interaction = 569
      Data Base = 570
    25.2 Expert-Novice Differences in Problem Solving = 570
      Recall Tasks = 570
      Protocol Tasks = 570
      Sorting Tasks = 571
      Implications of Research on Expert-Novice Differences in Problem Solving = 572
    25.3 Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Syntactic Knowledge = 572
      What is Syntactic Knowledge? = 572
      Research on Differences in Syntactic Knowledge = 572
      Implications of Research on Syntactic Knowledge = 572
    25.4 Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Semantic Knowledge = 573
      What is Semantic Knowledge? = 573
      Research on Differences in Semantic Knowledge = 573
      Implications of Research on Semantic Knowledge = 575
    25.5 Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Schematic Knowledge = 575
      What is Schematic Knowledge? = 575
      Research on Differences in Schematic Knowledge = 575
      Implications of Research on Schematic Knowledge = 576
    25.6 Expert-Novice Programmer Differences in Strategic Knowledge = 576
      What is Strategic Knowledge? = 576
      Research on Differences in Strategic Knowledge = 577
      Implications of Research on Strategic Knowledge = 577
    25.7 Conclusion = 578
      Theoretical Implications = 578
      Research Implications = 578
      Practical Implications = 578
    25.8 Acknowledgement = 579
    25.9 References = 579
  26 Microcomputers and the Elderly = 581
    26.1 Introduction = 581
    26.2 Use of Computer Technology by Older Adults = 582
      Employment = 582
      Communication and Education = 584
    26.3 Aging as a Process = 585
      Aging Defined = 585
    26.4 Sensory Process = 586
      Vision = 586
      Audition = 589
      Body Size and Strength = 590
    26.5 Cognitive Functioning = 590
      Speed of Responding = 590
      Perceptual Abilities = 592
    26.6 Memory and Learning = 593
    26.7 Summary = 595
    26.8 References = 595
  27 Computer-Based Instruction = 599
    27.1 Introduction = 599
    27.2 Computer Assisted Instruction = 600
      Examples of CAI Systems = 601
      Advantages of CAI = 604
      Disadvantages of CAI = 604
      Future of CAI = 605
    27.3 Computer Managed Instruction = 607
      Student Viewpoint = 607
      Instructor Viewpoint = 607
      Administrator Viewpoint = 607
      Example of A CMI System : AIS = 608
      Evaluation of CMI System = 608
    27.4 Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction = 609
      Characteristics of ICAI = 609
      STEAMER Example = 611
      Evaluation = 612
      Future Research = 612
    27.5 Computer-Based Instruction Issues and Research = 615
      Individual Differences = 615
      Knowledge of Results(KR) = 617
      Amount of Practice = 617
      Augmented Feedback = 617
      Part-Whole Training = 617
      Adaptive Training = 617
      Conceptual Representations = 617
      Motivation = 623
    27.6 Summary = 623
    27.7 References = 623
  28 Issues of Content and Presentation in Document Design = 629
    28.1 Introduction = 629
    28.2 Decisions about Content = 632
      Evidence for "enriched" manuals = 632
      A precis does not help the reader = 633
      Evidence for Minimal Manuals = 633
      Conclusions about content = 636
    28.3 Issues of Presentation = 636
      Medium = 636
      Mode of Representation = 638
      Language = 639
      Conclusions about presentation = 640
    28.4 Iterative Design Processes = 640
      Conclusions about testing = 645
    28.5 Will documentation always be needed? = 645
      Conclusions = 646
    28.6 References = 647
Ⅳ Applications of Computer Technology = 653
  29 Text Editors = 655
    29.1 Text Editor s1 = 655
    29.2 Varieties of Text Editors = 656
      Users and Their Tasks = 656
      Effect of Hardware = 656
    29.3 Fundamental Issues = 656
      Relationship with Other Applications = 657
      The Process of Editing = 657
    29.4 Command Language = 658
    29.5 Content = 661
      Model of Data = 661
      Display of Text = 662
      Operations = 663
    29.6 Appearance = 664
      Model of Appearance Information = 664
      Display of Formatting = 665
      Operations = 667
    29.7 Advanced Features = 667
      Special Applications = 667
      Programming = 668
    29.8 Evaluation = 669
    29.9 Conclusion = 669
    29.10 Acknowledgements = 670
    29.11 References = 670
  30 Textual Information Retrieval = 673
    30.1 Introduction = 673
    30.2 Structured Databases = 674
      Query Languages = 674
      New Directions in Query Languages = 675
      Menu-Based Systems = 677
      New Directions and Improvements in Menu-based Systems = 679
    30.3 Bibliographic/Full-Text Information Retrieval = 680
      Keyword-based Retrieval Systems = 680
      Evaluation of Keyword Retrieval Systems = 680
      Review of Research in Automatic Indexing = 682
      Boolean vs. Graded Document Similarity = 682
      Summary of Other Indexing Experiments = 683
      Improving Retrieval = 684
      Evaluation Revisited = 687
    30.4 New Developments and Frontiers = 687
      Richer Connections/Hypertext = 687
      Online Documents and Books = 689
      AI Methods in Information Science = 690
      Graphical Connections/Spatial Data Management = 692
      Customization/Selective Presentation of Information = 693
    30.5 The Future of Information Retrieval = 694
    30.6 References = 694
  31 Cognitive Aspects of Computer Aided Design = 701
    31.1 Introduction = 701
    31.2 Computer Aided Design and its Applications = 701
      What is Computer Aided Design? = 701
      CAD Systems = 702
    31.3 Design Engineering and Drawing Work = 703
    31.4 The CAD-User's System Interaction = 703
      System to User Communication = 703
      User to System Communication = 704
    31.5 What are the Advantages of CAD? = 704
      Two-dimensional CAD = 704
      Three-dimensional CAD = 704
    31.6 Some Cognitive Characteristics of CAD = 705
      Command Complexity = 705
      Surveying Complicated Parts = 705
      Response Time = 705
      Strategy Choices in CAD = 705
    31.7 The User's Mental Models = 706
      The User's Model of the CAD System = 706
      The User's Model of the Object and Final Product = 706
    31.8 CAD and Problem Solving = 706
      Problem Spaces and Problem Solving Heuristics = 706
      Some Aspects on CAD Systems as Problem Solving Instruments = 707
    31.9 Concluding Remarks = 708
    31.10 References = 708
  32 Human-Computer Interaction in Architectural Design = 709
    32.1 Introduction = 709
    32.2 Architectural Design : Some Issues in Human-Computer Interaction = 709
      A Shift in Focus : CAAD and quality = 710
    32.3 A Research Program = 711
    32.4 The Social and Organizational Implications of CAAD Systems = 712
    32.5 User Education and Training for CAAD Systems : The System Tutor = 713
      On-line Documentation and Professional Legal Liability = 714
      On-line Teaching Software = 714
    32.6 Advanced Interactive Systems for CAAD = 714
      The Hardware Interface = 715
      The Software Interface = 715
    32.7 The Design Interface, Design Modelling, and Design Cognition = 719
      Design Research and the Study of Decision Making in Design = 719
      Architectural Design Modelling and Graphic Representations = 721
      Value Judgment in Architectural Design = 722
    32.8 Conclusion = 724
    32.9 Acknowledgment = 724
    32.10 References = 724
  33 Human-Computer Interaction In Facilities Layout = 729
    33.1 Introduction to Facilities Layout Design = 729
    33.2 Modelling the Block Layout Problem = 730
      Graphical Techniques = 730
      Travel Charting = 730
      The Quadratic Assignment Model Graph Theory = 731
      Computerized Layout Routines = 732
    33.3 Human Versus Computer Methods = 732
    33.4 Human-Computer Interactive Methods = 733
      Aiding the Human = 733
    33.5 The Human-Computer Interactive System = 735
    33.6 References = 735
  34 Robot Programming = 737
    34.1 Introduction = 737
    34.2 Programming Considerations = 738
      Feasibility = 738
      Infrequency = 738
      Hybrids = 739
      Other Automation = 739
      Settings = 739
      Data Sources for Robot Control = 739
      Types of Robots = 741
      Varieties of Application Programs = 744
      Where Do Programs Originate? = 745
      Who Programs? = 745
    34.3 Human Factors Investigations = 746
      Teach Pendants = 746
      Teaching Arms = 748
      Computer Terminals = 748
      Controller Panel = 748
      Software = 748
    34.4 Desirable Research = 750
      Programming Configurations = 750
      Skill Requirements = 750
      Performance Measurement = 752
      Design Issues = 752
      Procedural Issues = 752
    34.5 Conclusion = 752
    34.6 References = 753
Ⅴ Tools for Design and Evaluation = 755
  35 How to Design Usable Systems = 757
    35.1 Introduction = 757
      Overview = 758
      Usability Has Many Aspects = 758
      Four System Design Principles = 759
      Usability design Phases = 759
    35.2 Behavioral Principles of Design = 759
      Beyond Standards, Guidelines, Etc. = 759
      Principle 1. Early and Continual Focus on Users = 760
      Methods to Carry Out Early Focus on Users = 762
      Principle 2. Integrated Design = 766
      Methods to Carry Out Integrated Design = 766
      Principle 3. Early-and Continual-User Testing = 768
      Methods to Carry Out Early and Continual User Testing = 768
      Principle 4. Iterative Design = 773
      Methods to Carry Out Iterative Design = 773
      Evaluation of Human Factors Principles = 775
    35.3 Starting Points = 777
      Define the System = 778
      Follow-on Systems = 778
      New Influential Systems = 778
      New Technologies = 778
      User Circumstances = 778
      Journals, Proceedings, Demonstrations = 778
      Other Designers and Consultants = 778
      Workshops and Short Courses = 779
      Standards, Guidelines, Development Procedures = 779
    35.4 User Interface Standards = 779
      Status and Evaluation = 779
    35.5 Handbooks and Guidelines = 780
      Status and Evaluation = 782
    35.6 Development Rules and Procedures = 782
      Description and Sources = 782
      Evaluation = 783
    35.7 Formal Models for Design = 783
      Evaluation = 784
    35.8 Summary and Conclusions = 784
    35.9 Acknowledgements = 784
    35.10 Trademarks = 785
    35.11 References = 785
  36 Usability Engineering : Our Experience and Evolution = 791
    36.1 Introduction = 791
      Purpose of this Chapter = 791
      A Framework for Proceeding, Not a Recipe = 792
      Background of our Approach = 792
    36.2 Part 1. Practical Experience in Usability Engineering = 792
      Our View of Engineering = 792
      The Role of Objectives in Development = 793
      Developing Usability Specifications = 794
      An Evolving Understanding of What Counts as Success = 798
      An Example of a Usability Specification Table = 798
      Using Usability Objectives During the Development Process = 798
    36.3 Part 2. Analysis of our Progress : The Need for Contextual Research = 805
      Historical Background : Shifting Perspectives = 805
      Our Conclusion : A Context Sensitive Research Approach is Needed = 808
    36.4 Part 3. Contextual Research : Exposition and Prospects = 809
      Uncovering Experience = 809
      Interpreting the Data = 812
      A Contextual Example = 812
      The Problem of Generalizability : The Emergence of Usability Concepts = 812
      Integrating Contextual Research Into the Engineering Process = 813
      Usability Engineering In the Development Cycle : A Vision = 814
    36.5 Summary = 815
    36.6 Acknowledgments = 816
    36.7 References = 816
  37 Software Tools for User Interface Development = 819
    37.1 Introduction = 819
      Design, Implementation,, and Evaluation = 820
      Tools versus Methods = 821
      A Perspective on Previous Work = 822
    37.2 The User Interface Management System Approach = 823
      Device Interfaces = 824
      Application Interfaces = 824
      Dialogue Control = 825
      Implementation Functionality = 825
      Dialogue Types = 826
    37.3 Future Developments in User Interface Tools = 829
      Integrating Design and Evaluation Tools into Development = 829
      Expert Systems = 830
      Enforcement of Standard and Rules = 830
      The Promise of Object-Oriented Development = 830
    37.4 Acknowledgement = 830
    37.5 References = 831
  38 A Task Analytic Approach to Dialogue Design = 835
    38.1 Introduction = 835
    38.2 Traditional Task Analysis Methods = 836
    38.3 Operations Concept Definition = 840
      Importance of User Involvement = 840
      Information-Processing Task Analysis = 842
      Conceptual Model of Interaction = 846
    38.4 Computer-Human Interface/Task Analysis = 847
      CHI/TA Conceptual Design Process = 847
      Semantic Design Process for the User Input Language = 847
      Semantic and Syntactic Design Process for Display Properties = 850
      Syntactic and Lexical Design of the User Input Language = 850
      Syntactic Design of the User Display Language = 852
      Lexical Design of the User Display Language = 852
      Result of CHI/TA = 854
    38.5 Conclusions = 856
    38.6 References = 856
  39 Rapid Prototyping for User Interface Design = 859
    39.1 Abstract = 859
    39.2 Interface Design As Tangible Speculation = 860
      Rapid Prototyping Defined = 860
      The Psychology of Prototyping = 860
      The Benefits of User Interface Prototyping = 861
      What Can be Prototyped = 862
      The User Interface Specification = 862
    39.3 How to Prototype = 863
      The Random Walk Approach = 864
      Top Down Design = 864
      Rapid Prototyping from the Bottom Up = 864
      Integrated Design Environments = 865
    39.4 Classes of Prototyping Techniques = 865
      Slide Show Techniques = 865
      Wizard of Oz Techniques = 865
      Fully Animated Prototypes = 865
    39.5 Rapid Prototyping and the User Interface Management System = 865
    39.6 Designers That Use or Need Prototyping Tools = 866
    39.7 Types of Prototyping Tools = 866
      The Tool Kit Approach = 866
      The Parts Kit Approach = 866
      Animation Language Metaphor = 867
    39.8 Anatomy of a User Interface Rapid Prototyping Tool = 867
      Graphical Specification = 868
      Logical Specification = 868
      Formal Grammars = 868
      State Tables = 869
      State Transition Networks = 869
      Behavior by Example = 869
      Binding It All Together : The Run Time Unit = 870
    39.9 Built-In Instrumentation of the User Interface = 870
    39.10 Automatic Evaluation Techniques for User Interface Design = 871
      Artificial Intelligence in Rapid Prototyping Systems = 871
    39.11 Conclusions = 873
    39.12 References = 873
  40 Standards Versus Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software = 877
    40.1 Abstract = 877
    40.2 User Interface Software = 877
    40.3 Design Standards = 878
    40.4 Hardware Versus Software = 878
    40.5 Standards Versus Guidelines, Rules and Algorithms = 880
    40.6 The Knowledge Base for Standards and Guidelines = 884
    40.7 Application of Design Guidelines = 885
    40.8 Adaptability or Anarchy? = 887
    40.9 Acknowledgment = 887
    40.10 References = 888
  41 Software Evaluation Methodologies = 891
    41.1 Introduction = 891
    41.2 Theory-Based Evaluation = 893
    41.3 User-Based Evaluations = 895
    41.4 Surveys and Questionnaires = 896
    41.5 Verbal Reports = 897
    41.6 Controlled Experimental Studies = 898
    41.7 Task-Based Evaluations = 899
    41.8 Informal Design Review = 900
    41.9 Formal Design Analysis - GOMS = 900
    41.10 Production System Analysis = 901
    41.11 Summary = 902
    41.12 References = 903
  42 Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction = 905
    42.1 Introduction : For Whom and Why and What = 905
      Why Research is Important in Human Computer Interaction = 905
    42.2 Goals for Research in Human Computer Interaction = 906
      Relative Evaluation of Systems or Features = 907
      Determining what a System should do = 907
      Discovering Relevant Scientific Principles and Testing Models = 907
      Establishing Explicit Standards or Guidelines for Design = 907
      Being Clear about a Goal is the First Step towards it = 907
    42.3 Special Problems of doing Research in Human-Computer Interaction = 907
    42.4 Research Designs and General Methodology = 908
      General Strategy Issues = 909
      Invention and Specification Oriented Methods = 911
      Design Oriented Research Methods = 913
      General Principle Oriented Methods = 917
    42.5 Measurement and Analysis = 918
      Preliminaries : What to Measure and How many Observations = 918
      Data Quality = 921
      Reliability = 921
      Statistical Analysis = 922
    42.6 Conclusions and Summary = 926
    42.7 References = 927
Ⅵ Artificial Intelligence = 929
  43 Human Factors Issues in Expert Systems = 931
    43.1 Introduction = 931
    43.2 What is an Expert System? = 932
    43.3 A User-Oriented Taxonomy of Expert Systems = 932
      Type of Application = 932
      Source of Pacing = 932
      Type of Knowledge = 932
    43.4 Task Decomposition = 933
    43.5 Function Allocation = 934
    43.6 Design Philosophy = 934
      Tools versus Solutions = 936
      Design of Displays for Expert Systems = 937
      Displays for Data Input = 937
      Displays for Explanation = 937
      Expert System Usability Issues = 939
      Keeping the User Current = 939
      Expert System Reliability = 939
      Workload = 939
    43.7 Summary = 940
    43.8 References = 940
  44 Natural Language Interface Systems = 941
    44.1 Introduction = 941
    44.2 Syntax and Parsing = 943
      Introduction = 943
      Grammatical Formalisms = 945
      Semantic Grammars = 946
    44.3 Semantic Interpretation = 946
      Representing the Meaning of a Question = 946
      The Semantic Interpretation Process = 948
    44.4 Semantic Transformations = 949
      Introduction = 949
      Declarative Specifications Of The Relation Between EFL and DBL = 950
    44.5 The Ambiguity Problem = 951
      Anomaly Checking = 951
      Presupposition Failure = 951
    44.6 Discourse = 952
    44.7 Acknowledgements = 952
    44.8 References = 952
  45 Human Factors in Knowledge Acquisition = 957
    45.1 Introduction = 957
    45.2 Building an Expert System = 958
      Selection of Experts = 958
      Knowledge Acquisition in the early Stages of System Building = 959
    45.3 Specific Elicitation Techniques = 960
      Introduction = 960
      Retrospective Comment Analysis = 961
      Thinking-Aloud Protocols = 963
      Interruption Analysis = 964
      On-line Comment Analysis = 964
      Incremental Simulation = 965
      Mixed-Method Approaches = 966
    45.4 Summary = 967
    45.5 Acknowledgements = 967
    45.6 References = 968
  46 Intelligent Interface Design = 969
    46.1 Introduction = 970
    46.2 The Evolution of the Interface = 970
      General Functions of the Interface = 971
    46.3 The Concept of Intelligent Interfaces = 972
      What is an Intelligent Interface? = 972
      What are the Components of an Intelligent Interface? = 976
      When is an Intelligent Interface Needed? = 979
    46.4 Intelligent Interface Models = 980
      Information Retrieval Search Intermediaries = 980
      Expert Systems as Intelligent Interfaces = 980
    46.5 Supplementary Techniques for Intelligent Interfaces = 981
      Approach 1 : Natural Language Interfaces = 981
      Approach 2 : Hypemedia = 983
      Approach 3 : Expert Systems = 984
      Approach 4 : Knowledge Acquisition = 985
      Approach 5 : Dialog Design = 985
    46.6 Intelligent Interface Technology = 985
      Necessity 1 : Task Analysis = 985
      Necessity 2 : Expert Systems = 985
      Necessity 3 : Interface Design Tools = 986
    46.7 The Process of Building an Intelligent Interface = 986
      Task Analysis = 986
      User Model = 986
      Development of Common Interface Model = 986
      Conceptual Design = 986
      Building the Task Machine = 986
      Prototyping the Interface = 987
      Evaluating the Interface = 987
      Redesign = 987
    46.8 A Case Study in Intelligent Interface Design = 987
      Task Analysis = 988
      Common Interface Model = 988
      User Model = 989
      Conceptual Design = 989
      Building the Task Machine = 989
      Prototyping the Interface = 989
      Evaluating the Interface = 989
    46.9 Summary and Conclusions = 990
      Future Directions = 990
    46.10 References = 991
  47 Decision Support Systems : Designing to Extend the Cognitive Limits = 997
    47.1 Introduction = 997
    47.2 Decision Support and Human Decision Processes : Some Definitions = 998
      Naturalistic Decision Processes = 999
    47.3 The Decision Support System Design Process = 1001
    47.4 Step 1 : Definition and Decomposition of the Decision Problem = 1003
      Goal Decomposition = 1003
      Decision Situation Description = 1004
    47.5 Step 2 : Analysis of Decision Situations = 1008
      Identifying Decision-Making Limitations and Constraints = 1008
    47.6 Step 3 : Defining Decision Support System Functionality = 1010
    47.7 Step 4 : Selecting DSS Technology within Behavioral and Cognitive Constrants = 1011
    47.8 Selecting Process Models for the Dss = 1013
    47.9 Selecting Value Models for the DSS = 1015
    47.10 Selecting Information Management Tools for the DSS = 1017
      Data Management Techniques = 1018
      Knowledge Management Techniques = 1019
    47.11 Selecting Automated Analysis/Reasoning Techniques for the DSS = 1020
      Numeric Reasoning Techniques = 1022
      Symbolic Analysis Techniques = 1023
    47.12 Selecting a Representation Aid for the DSS = 1024
    47.13 Selecting a Judgement Refinement/Amplification Tool for the DSS = 1026
    47.14 Summary and Conclusions = 1028
    47.15 Acknowledgements = 1028
    47.16 References = 1028
Ⅶ Psychological and Organizational Issues = 1031
  48 Social Aspects of Computer Use = 1033
    48.1 Introduction = 1033
    48.2 Myth Number 1. Employees React with Irrational Fears when Computers are Introduced = 1033
    48.3 Myth Number 2. Employee Participation in Technological Change is Needless = 1034
    48.4 Myth Number 3. Unions, Impede Technological and Economic Progress = 1036
    48.5 Myth Number 4. Planning for Technological Change should Rely more on Experts than End Users = 1038
    48.6 Myth Number 5. When Possible use Technology to Create more Desk-type Jobs = 1039
    48.7 Myth Number 6. In Job Design, Remember to Keep it Simple = 1040
    48.8 Myth Number 7. New Policies and Closer Supervision are Proven Methods for Improving Productivity and Eliminating Waste = 1044
    48.9 Myth Number 8. One Person with a Computer can Outperform a Whole Team = 1045
    48.10 Summary = 1047
    48.11 References = 1048
  49 Information Technology and Work Organization = 1051
    49.1 Abstract = 1051
    49.2 Introduction = 1051
    49.3 Theoretical Bases = 1052
      Perspectives on Organizational Structure = 1052
      Perspectives on Technology = 1053
      The Link Between Structure and Technology = 1054
    49.4 Survey of Empirical Research = 1055
      Rationalist Perspective = 1056
      Information Processing Perspective = 1060
      Motivational Perspective = 1061
      Political Perspective = 1064
    49.5 Implications for Further Research = 1065
    49.6 Implications for the Design of Systems and Work = 1065
      Rationalist Perspective = 1065
      Information Processing Perspective = 1065
      Motivational Perspective = 1066
      Political Perspective = 1066
    49.7 Conclusion = 1066
    49.8 References = 1067
  50 Socio-Issues Related to Home-Based Work = 1071
    50.1 Introduction = 1071
    50.2 Characteristics of the Home-Based Work Force = 1072
    50.3 Research Concerns = 1073
    50.4 Labor Unions and Disabled Workers = 1074
    50.5 Implications for Design of Computer Systems = 1075
    50.6 Markets For Computer Systems = 1075
      Systems Installation in Private Dwellings for Full-Time Home-Based Employees = 1076
    50.7 New Directions = 1076
    50.8 Research on Technology = 1077
    50.9 Organizational Technology = 1077
    50.10 Research on Home-Based Work = 1078
    50.11 References = 1078
  51 Factors Influencing Acceptance of Computer-Based Innovations = 1081
    51.1 Introduction = 1081
    51.2 Innovation Acceptance Theory = 1082
      Initial Awareness = 1083
      Need for Improvement = 1083
      Level of Interest = 1083
      Information Acquisition = 1085
      Perceived Features and Perceived Need = 1085
      Experience With Similar Developments = 1085
      User Participation In Design = 1085
      Personal Risk = 1085
      Availability of Support = 1085
      Subjective Evaluation = 1086
      Organizational Climate = 1086
      The Role of Authority = 1087
      Summary of the Theoretical Process = 1087
    51.3 Planning for Innovation Acceptance = 1087
      Communicate with Potential Users = 1089
      User Involvement During Development = 1089
      Design for Acceptance = 1091
    51.4 A Study of New Decision Support Systems = 1091
      Military Officers are Basically Optimistic About The Potential Value of AI Decision Aids = 1092
      Understanding the Decision Rules is Essential = 1092
      The Best Available Expertise Does Not Imply Operational Validity = 1095
      Reduction of the Decision Maker's Mental Workload = 1095
      Value of AI Under High Stress Conditions = 1097
      Perceived Value of AI to Officers of Different Experience Levels = 1097
      Concern About Undue Influence = 1099
      Undermining of Decision Making Authority = 1099
      Summary = 1101
      Interface Design Issues = 1101
      Nature of Recommendation/Situation Assessment Outputs = 1101
      Probability or Confidence Estimates = 1101
      Addition/Deletion of Decision Rules = 1103
    51.5 Summary of Results = 1103
      Perceived Positive Attributes of AI Decision Aids = 1103
      Negative Perceptions of AI Decision Aids = 1103
      General Design Issues = 1104
    51.6 Conclusion = 1105
    51.7 References = 1105
  52 Technological Innovation and Organizational Ecology = 1107
    52.1 Abstract = 1107
    52.2 Introduction = 1107
    52.3 Technological Feasibility = 1109
      Bridge Distance and Time = 1109
      Enormous Data Storage Capability = 1109
      More Stand Alone Equipment = 1109
      More Connectivity Among Terminals and Computers = 1109
      Equipment Mobility = 1109
      Virtual Simultaneous Input = 1109
      Graphic, Number, Written, and Oral Capacity = 1109
      Rapid Obsolescence = 1109
      Summary of Technical Feasibility = 1109
    52.4 Space Planning Implication of Office Automation = 1109
      Redistribution of Space : Smaller and Larger Personal Work Areas = 1110
      Multiple Work Areas = 1110
      More Focus on Shared Meeting and social Spaces = 1110
      More Amenities = 1111
      More Group/Project Spaces = 1111
      More Emphasis on Personnel Safety = 1111
      Loose versus Tight Fit = 1111
    52.5 Organizational Constraints : The Acceptability Program = 1112
      Assumptions About How Space is Structured = 1112
      Assumptions About Peer Relationships and Interaction Patterns = 1112
      Assumptions about Turf and Privacy = 1113
      Summary of Organizational Implications = 1114
    52.6 Integrating Technology, Design, and Organizational Innovation = 1114
      A Case Study = 1114
    52.7 The Acceptability Factor and the Enculturation Process = 1116
    52.8 Acknowledgments = 1116
    52.9 References = 1117
Author Index = 1119
Subject Index = 1149

관련분야 신착자료

김효곤 (2022)