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Natural language generation in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics

Natural language generation in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics

Material type
단행본
Personal Author
Paris, Cecile L. Swartout, William R. Mann, William C.
Title Statement
Natural language generation in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics / editors, Cecile L. Paris, William R. Swartout, William C. Mann.
Publication, Distribution, etc
Boston :   Kluwer Academic ,   c1991.  
Physical Medium
xix, 403 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Series Statement
The Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science ; Natural language processing and machine translation.SECS 119.
ISBN
0792390989 :
Content Notes
A reactive approach to explanation : taking the user's feedback into account / Johanna D. Moore and William R. Swartout -- Generation and explanation : building an explanation facility for the explainable expert systems framework / Cecile L. Paris -- Approaches to the planning of coherent text / Eduard H. Hovy -- Focus of attention : constraining what can be said next / Kathleen F. McCoy and Jeannette Cheng -- Uncovering textual meanings : a case study involving systemic-functional resources for the generation of Japanese texts / John A. Bateman -- The implications of revisions for natural language generation / Marie W. Meteer -- POPEL : a parallel and incremental natural language generation system / Norbert Reithinger.
Bibliography, Etc. Note
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
Natural language processing (Computer science). Artificial intelligence. Computational linguistics.
비통제주제어
Computers, Use of, Natural language,,
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008 900911s1991 maua b 001 0 engx
010 ▼a 90048885
015 ▼a GB91-29077
020 ▼a 0792390989 : ▼c $60.00
040 ▼a DLC ▼c DLC ▼d UKM ▼d PMC
049 1 ▼l 421106247 ▼f 과학
050 0 0 ▼a QA76.9.N38 ▼b N38 1991
082 0 0 ▼a 006.3/5 ▼2 20
090 ▼a 006.35 ▼b P232n
245 0 0 ▼a Natural language generation in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics / ▼c editors, Cecile L. Paris, William R. Swartout, William C. Mann.
260 ▼a Boston : ▼b Kluwer Academic , ▼c c1991.
300 ▼a xix, 403 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 24 cm.
490 1 ▼a The Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science ; ▼v SECS 119. ▼a Natural language processing and machine translation.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographical references and index.
505 0 ▼a A reactive approach to explanation : taking the user's feedback into account / Johanna D. Moore and William R. Swartout -- Generation and explanation : building an explanation facility for the explainable expert systems framework / Cecile L. Paris -- Approaches to the planning of coherent text / Eduard H. Hovy -- Focus of attention : constraining what can be said next / Kathleen F. McCoy and Jeannette Cheng -- Uncovering textual meanings : a case study involving systemic-functional resources for the generation of Japanese texts / John A. Bateman -- The implications of revisions for natural language generation / Marie W. Meteer -- POPEL : a parallel and incremental natural language generation system / Norbert Reithinger.
505 0 ▼a Tailoring output to the user : what does user modelling in generation mean? / Karen Sparck Jones -- On the place of words in the generation process / David D. McDonald -- Lexico (grammatical) choice in text generation / Christian Matthiessen -- Lexical selection and paraphrase in a meaning-text generation model / Lidija Iordanskaja, Richard Kittredge and Alain Polgu?re -- Referent grammar in text generation / Bengt Sigurd -- Segment grammar : a formalism for incremental sentence generation / Koenraad De Smedt and Gerard Kempen -- A constrastive evaluation of functional unification grammar for surface language generation : a case study in choice of connectives / Kathleen R. McKeown and Michael Elhadad.
650 0 ▼a Natural language processing (Computer science).
650 0 ▼a Artificial intelligence.
650 0 ▼a Computational linguistics.
653 ▼a Computers ▼a Use of ▼a Natural language
700 1 0 ▼a Paris, Cecile L.
700 1 0 ▼a Swartout, William R.
700 1 0 ▼a Mann, William C.
830 0 ▼a Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science ; ▼v SECS 119.
830 0 ▼a Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science. ▼p Natural language processing and machine translation.

Holdings Information

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No. 1 Location Science & Engineering Library/Sci-Info(Stacks2)/ Call Number 006.35 P232n Accession No. 121162438 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 2 Location Science & Engineering Library/Sci-Info(Stacks2)/ Call Number 006.35 P232n Accession No. 121163330 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M
No. 3 Location Science & Engineering Library/Sci-Info(Stacks2)/ Call Number 006.35 P232n Accession No. 421106247 Availability Available Due Date Make a Reservation Service B M

Contents information

Table of Contents

CONTENTS
Contents = ⅴ
Preface = xv
Authors = xxi
Ⅰ TEXT PLANNING = 1
  1 A Reactive Approach to Explanation : Taking the User's Feedback into Account / Johanna D. Moore ; William R. Swartout = 3
    1.1 Introduction = 4
    1.2 Limitations of conventional Explanation Systems = 6
    1.3 Related Work in Natural Language Generation = 7
    1.4 System Overview = 9
      1.4.1 The Plan Language = 13
      1.4.2 The Plan Operator Space = 19
      1.4.3 The Planning Mechanism = 21
    1.5 Examples = 23
      1.5.1 Planning a Response = 23
      1.5.2 Disambiguating Follow-up Why Questions = 30
      1.5.3 Answering a Vaguely-Articulated Follow-Up Question = 39
    1.6 Status and Future Work = 41
      1.6.1 More Sophisticated Management and Use of Dialogue History = 41
      1.6.2 Execution Monitoring = 42
      1.6.3 Incorporating Pragmatic Goals = 43
      1.6.4 Multi-Media Communication Planning = 44
    1.7 Conclusions = 44
  2 Generation and Explanation : Building an Explanation Facility for the Explainable Expert Systems Framework / C ?acutee cile L. Paris = 49
    2.1 Introduction = 50
    2.2 Natural Language Generation and Explanation for Expert Systems = 50
      2.2.1 Current expert System Explanation Facilities = 50
      2.2.2 Constructing an Appropriate Answer = 51
    2.3 The EES Architecture and How It Affects Explanation = 53
    2.4 The Requirements for our Explanation Facility = 56
      2.4.1 Identifying the Set of Questions to Answer = 58
    2.5 Developing the Explanation Facility for EES = 59
      2.5.1 Initial Attempt : Use of Schemata = 59
      2.5.2 Examples of How These Schemata Were Used to Produce Paragraph-Length Explanations? = 60
      2.5.3 Do Schemata Fulfill Our Requirements = 60
      2.5.4 Other Existing Generating Techniques = 63
      2.5.5 From Schema to the New EES Text Plan Language = 66
    2.6 Tailoring Explanations = 71
      2.6.1 Tailoring the content and organization of the text = 71
      2.6.2 Tailoring the phrasing of the text = 73
    2.7 Direction for Future Work : Acquiring and Changing Plan Operators = 75
    2.8 Conclusions = 78
  3 Approaches to the Planning of Coherent text / Eduard H. Hovy = 83
    3.1 Introduction = 84
    3.2 Structuring Paragraphs using Rst = 85
      3.2.1 Background to the Planning = 85
      3.2.2 An Example of the Planning Process = 86
    3.3 Relation/Plans, Schemas, and Clause-Level Rules = 92
      3.3.1 Relation/Plans and Schemas = 92
      3.3.2 Desirable Characteristics of Relation/Plans = 94
      3.3.3 Relation/Plans and Clause-Level Rules = 95
    3.4 Top-Down and Open-Ended Planning = 97
      3.4.1 A Different Treatment of Growth Points = 97
      3.4.2 Hybridization = 99
    3.5 Conclusion = 100
  4 Focus of attention : Constraining what can be said next / Kathleen F. McCoy and Jeannette Cheng = 103
    4.1 Introduction = 104
    4.2 Different Kinds of Focusing Items = 105
    4.3 Discourse Focus Trees = 108
    4.4 Traversing and Building the Tree = 109
    4.5 Categories of Focus Nodes = 111
    4.6 Syntactic Clues for Traversing the Tree = 115
    4.7 An Example = 117
    4.8 Current Directions = 117
    4.9 Related Research = 119
    4.10 Conclusion = 121
  5 Uncovering textual meanings : a case study involving systemic-functional resources for the generation of Japanese texts / John A. Bateman = 125
    5.1 Introduction = 126
      5.1.1 The 'Grammar-as-Filter' Methodology = 126
      5.1.2 Pervasiveness of Non-Ideational Phenomena in Japanese = 130
    5.2 Particle Assignment in Japanese = 132
      5.2.1 The 'Topic' Particle wa = 133
      5.2.2 The 'case' Particles ga, wo, and ni = 137
    5.3 Towards Text Base Distinctions = 146
    5.4 Principal Conclusions of the Exploration = 148
  6 The Implications of Revisions for Natural Language Generation / Marie W. Meteer = 155
    6.1 Introduction = 156
    6.2 Description of the Data = 156
      6.2.1 Survey of the Data = 157
      6.2.2 Categories of Revisions = 163
      6.2.3 A Closer Look At Conciseness = 164
    6.3 Goals for the Analysis : Generality = 165
      6.3.1 Levels of Decision Making = 165
      6.3.2 Generalities Across The Data = 166
    6.4 Analysis of the data for Generation = 168
      6.4.1 Constituency = 169
      6.4.2 Functional Relations = 169
      6.4.3 Semantic Types = 170
    6.5 Analysis for Generation = 171
      6.5.1 An Efficiency Model Of Generation = 172
      6.5.2 Why Revision : Tension Between Goals = 173
    6.6 Conclusion = 175
  7 POPEL - A Parallel and Incremental Natural Language Generation System / Norbert Reithinger = 179
    7.1 Introduction = 180
    7.2 The Natural Language Access System XTRA = 180
    7.3 Contextual Knowledge for Discourse processing = 181
      7.3.1 User Model = 181
      7.3.2 Discourse Structure = 182
    7.4 The Architecture of POPEL = 183
      7.4.1 A Classification of Generation Systems = 183
      7.4.2 POPEL - a Model with Feedback = 184
    7.5 The Structure of POPEL-WHAT = 186
      7.5.1 The Relevant Knowledge selector = 187
      7.5.2 The Structure Activator = 188
      7.5.3 The Request Handler = 189
      7.5.4 The Context Handler = 189
    7.6 The Structure of POPEL-HOW = 191
      7.6.1 The Four Levels of POPEL-HOW = 191
      7.6.2 Parallel Verbalization in POPEL-HOW = 193
      7.6.3 Syntactic Knowledge = 193
      7.6.4 Syntactical Processing in a Distributed System = 195
    7.7 The Gesture Generator ZORA = 195
    7.8 Conclusion And Future Work = 196
  8 Tailoring output to the user : What does user modelling in generation mean? / Karen Sparck Jones = 201
    8.1 Introduction = 202
    8.2 Background = 203
    8.3 System Examples = 207
    8.4 Example Implications = 213
    8.5 Generation = 218
    8.6 Conclusion = 223
Ⅱ LEXICAL CHOICE = 227
  9 On the Place of words In the Generation Process / David D. McDonald = 229
    9.1 Introduction = 230
    9.2 The Relationship Between words and Conceptual structures : Feature Matching or Direct Lookup? = 232
    9.3 "Lexical Clusters" to Realize "Sublexical" Conceptual Units = 235
      9.3.1 "Sublexical" Conceptual Sources for words = 236
      9.3.2 The Mechanics of Selection From a Lexical Cluster = 238
    9.4 Choices Made in the Underlying Program Rather than the Generator = 241
      9.4.1 Two Objects, Two Realizations = 242
      9.4.2 "Canonical Action Chains" to Carry Shared Inferences = 243
    9.5 Concluding Remarks = 244
  10 Lexico(Grammatical) choice in text generation / Christian Matthiessen = 249
    10.1 The Problem : Lexical Choice in Text Generation = 250
    10.2 An Abstract Systemic-Functional Model of Lexis for Text Generation = 252
    10.3 Internal Organization of Lexis = 258
    10.4 Lexis in Relation to Other Resources = 261
      10.4.1 Lexis in Relation to Grammar : Lexicogrammar = 261
      10.4.2 Lexis in Relation to Higher Levels of Organization = 263
    10.5 Functionality = 265
      10.5.1 Interpersonal and Textual Lexis = 266
      10.5.2 Interpersonal Lexis Combined with Ideational Lexis = 266
      10.5.3 Textual Lexis Combined with Ideational Lexis = 268
    10.6 Contextual Factors = 270
    10.7 The Systemic Model in Relation to other Approaches to the Issues = 272
      10.7.1 The Internal Organization of Lexis = 272
      10.7.2 Lexical choice in Relation to Other Generation Processes = 277
      10.7.3 Metafunctional Organization of Lexis = 283
    10.8 Conclusion = 285
  11 Lexical selection and paraphrase in a Meaning-Text Generation Model / Lidija Iordanskaja ; Richard Kittredge ; Alain Plgu ?acutee re = 293
    11.1 Introduction = 294
    11.2 Some Features of an MTM = 294
    11.3 The MTM's Lexicon = 296
      11.3.1 Lexical Entries in the Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary = 296
      11.3.2 Points of Lexicalization = 298
    11.4 Sources of paraphrase = 298
      11.4.1 Incremental Reductins(Simplifications) in the Semantic Net = 299
      11.4.2 Passage from semantic net to deep syntactic tree = 301
      11.4.3 DSyntR Paraphrasing Rules Using Lexical Functions(LFs) = 305
      11.4.4 Surface Syntactic Realization = 307
    11.5 Implementation Context = 308
    11.6 Summary = 309
Ⅲ GRAMMATICAL RESOURCES = 313
  12 Referent Grammar In Text Generation / Bengt Sigurd = 315
    12.1 From Scenes and Facts to Story and Headline = 316
    12.2 A Referent Dynamic Analysis of the Text = 317
    12.3 Referent Grammar = 318
    12.4 Referent Grammar in Text Analysis = 319
    12.5 Referent Grammar in Text Generation = 321
    12.6 Ranking Referents According to Interest = 322
    12.7 Ranking Predicates According to Inclusiveness = 323
    12.8 Generalizations and Abstract Referents = 324
    12.9 Conclusions = 324
  13 Segment Grammar : a Formalism fo Incremental Sentence Generation / Koenraad De Smedt ; Gerard Kempen = 329
    13.1 Introduction = 330
    13.2 Segment Grammar = 331
      13.2.1 Formal Definition Of Segment Grammar = 331
      13.2.2 Informal Synoposis of Segment Grammar = 332
    13.3 A Lexically Driven Formulator Design = 337
    13.4 An Object-Oriented Implementation of Segment Grammar = 341
    13.5 Discussion and Relation with other Work = 343
      13.5.1 Phrase structure Rules and Categorial Grammar = 344
      13.5.2 Unification = 346
      13.5.3 TAG = 346
    13.6 Concluding Remarks = 348
  14 A Contrastive Evaluation of Functional Unification Grammar for Surface Language Generation : A Case Study in Choice of Connectives / Kathleen R. McKeown ; Michael Elhadad = 351
    14.1 Introduction = 352
    14.2 Overview of FUG = 354
    14.3 Choice of Connective : an Example = 359
      14.3.1 Previous Work in Lexical Choice = 361
      14.3.2 Constraints on Connective Selection = 363
      14.3.3 An Example of Constraint Interaction = 366
      14.3.4 Implementation = 368
    14.4 Comparison with Other Formalisms = 375
      14.4.1 Using an ATN for Generation = 377
      14.4.2 DCG = 382
      14.4.3 MUMBLE = 383
      14.4.4 Systemic Formalisms = 387
    14.5 Conclusions = 390
      14.5.1 Problems with FUG : Representation and Use of complex constraints = 391
      14.5.2 Summary = 392
Index = 397

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