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Physiology of exercise : responses & adaptations 2nd ed

Physiology of exercise : responses & adaptations 2nd ed (2회 대출)

자료유형
단행본
개인저자
Lamb, David R.
서명 / 저자사항
Physiology of exercise : responses & adaptations / David R. Lamb.
판사항
2nd ed.
발행사항
New York :   Macmillan ;   London :   Collier Macmillan Publishers,   c1984.  
형태사항
xx, 489 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
ISBN
0023672102
서지주기
Includes bibliographies and index.
일반주제명
Exercise --Physiological aspects. Exertion. Physiology.
000 00773pamuuu200253 a 4500
001 000000073801
005 .0
008 820514s1984 nyua b 00110 eng
010 ▼a 82009886
020 ▼a 0023672102
049 ▼l 412618478 ▼l 412618479
050 0 ▼a QP301 ▼b .L27 1984
060 ▼a WE 103 L2177p
082 0 ▼a 612/.044 ▼2 19
090 ▼a 612.044 ▼b L218p2
100 1 0 ▼a Lamb, David R.
245 1 0 ▼a Physiology of exercise : ▼b responses & adaptations / ▼c David R. Lamb.
250 ▼a 2nd ed.
260 0 ▼a New York : ▼b Macmillan ; ▼a London : ▼b Collier Macmillan Publishers, ▼c c1984.
300 ▼a xx, 489 p. : ▼b ill. ; ▼c 26 cm.
504 ▼a Includes bibliographies and index.
650 0 ▼a Exercise ▼x Physiological aspects.
650 2 ▼a Exertion.
650 2 ▼a Physiology.

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CONTENTS
1. The Nature of Exercise Physiology = 1
 Exercise Physiology - What Is It? = 2
  Mechanisms in Exercise Physiology = 3
 Exercise Science = 4
 Sports Medicine = 5
 Physical Fitness = 5
  Physical Fitness and Exercise Physiology = 7
  Physical Fitness for Athletics and Rehabilitation = 8
 Review Questions = 8
 References = 9
2. Responses and Adaptations to Exercise : General Considerations = 10
 Responses and Adaptations : The Effects of Exercise and Training = 10
  Homeostasis and the Negative Feedback Character of Responses and Adaptations to Exercise = 11
  General Patterns of Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Exercise and Training = 13
  Complete Explanations in Exercise Physiology = 17
 Review Questions = 17
 References = 18
3. Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function = 19
 The Structure of Skeletal Muscle = 19
 Muscle Contraction = 23
  The Contractile Process = 23
  Cross Bridge Cycling = 25
 Muscle Relaxation = 26
 Muscle Fiber Types = 28
  Myosin ATPase and Contractile Speed = 29
  Metabolic Characteristics of Different Fiber Types = 30
  Neural Factors and Fiber Types = 31
 Fiber Types and Athletic Performance = 32
  Heredity and Training Effects on Fiber Types = 33
  Value of Fiber Typing for Athletes = 34
 Review Questions = 35
 References = 35
4. Energy Metabolism = 38
 The Primary Fuel Reserve - Creatine Phosphate = 39
 Anaerobic Glycolysis = 40
  Other Considerations in Giycolysis = 42
  Use of Lactic Acid for Energy = 44
 Aerobic Carbohydrate Breakdown = 45
  The Electron Transport System = 48
  Total ATP Production During Aerobic Carbohydrate Breakdown = 48
 Aerobic ATP Production from Fat (Lipid) = 51
  Triglyceride (Triacylglycerol) = 51
  Oxidation of Fatty Acids = 51
  ATP Produced with Fatty Acid Oxidation = 53
 Aerobic ATP Production from Protein = 54
  Protein CataboHsm During Exercise = 55
 Regulation of Energy Pathways = 56
  Regulation of Creatine Phosphate Breakdown = 56
  Regulation of Glycolysis = 56
  Regulation of Fatty Acid Breakdown for Energy = 57
  Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation = 60
 Training-Induced Adaptations in Energy Metabolism = 60
  Adaptations Related to Creatine Phosphate = 60
  Adaptations Related to Glycolysis = 61
  Adaptations Related to Aerobic ATP Replenishment = 62
 Review Questions = 62
 References = 63
5. Nutrition and Athletic Performance = 66
 Part 1 : Energy Requirements and Fuels for Exercise = 67
  Total Energy Requirements = 67
  Fuels for Exercise = 70
 Part 2 : Dietary Manipulations of Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate = 76
  Protein and Exercise = 76
  Dietary Fat and Exercise = 79
  Carbohydrates and Exercise 80
 Part 3 : Manipulation of Vitamins, Minerals, and Pre-event Meals = 88
  Vitamin Requirements for Athletes = 88
  Mineral Requirements for Athletes = 91
  Pre-event Meals = 92
 Review Questions = 93
 References = 94
6. Estimation of Energy Expenditure During Exercise = 99
 Calculation of Oxygen Uptake and Carbon Dioxide Production = 100
  Oxygen Uptake = 100
  Measurement of Inspired or Expired Air Volume = 101
  Carbon Dioxide Production = 102
 Oxygen Deficit and Oxygen Debt = 103
  Causes of Oxygen Debt = 105
  Estimation of Oxygen Cost, Caloric Cost, Oxygen Deficit, and Oxygen Debt = 106
 Determination of the Caloric Equivalent of Oxygen Consumed and the Net Caloric Cost of Exercise = 108
  Caloric Equivalent of Oxygen Consumed = 108
  Respiratory Exchange Ratio = 108
  Net Caloric Cost of Exercise = 110
 Determination of the Contribution of Various Foodstuffs to Energy Expenditure = 110
 Review Questions = 112
 References = 113
7. Exercise, Body Composition, and Weight Control = 114
 Fat and Nonfat Components of "Typical" Man and Woman = 114
 Determination of Body Composition = 115
  Hydrostatic Weighing = 115
  The Skinfold Technique = 119
  Imperfections of Indirect Estimates of Body Composition = 120
 Development of Body Fat During Growth and Aging = 121
 Obesity and Weight Control = 121
  Obesity of Childhood Onset and Adult Onset = 122
  Obesity As a Risk Factor in Disease = 122
  Causes of Obesity - The Caloric Balance Equation = 122
  Caloric Deficit or Excess Required to Alter Body Weight = 123
  Changes in Basal Metabolic Rate and Daily Physical Activity = 124
  Changes in the Thermic Effect of Food and in Environmental Temperature = 124
  The Role of Exercise in Weight Reduction Programs = 125
 Review Questions = 134
 References = 135
8. The Physiology of Aerobic Endurance = 137
 Part 1 : Cardiac Function = 138
  Cardiac Output at Rest and During Exercise = 139
  Control of Heart Rate = 139
  Anticipatory Rise in Heart Rate = 141
  Exercise Heart Rate = 141
  Heart Rate After Exercise = 143
  Stroke Volume = 144
  Possible Heart Damage Because of Sudden Heavy Exercise - Value of Warmup = 144
 Part 2 : Circulation = 145
  Blood Flow in Working Muscles = 145
  Blood Flow in Nonworking Muscles = 149
  Blood Flow in the Viscera = 150
  Skin Blood Flow = 151
  Coronary Blood Flow = 152
  Blood Flow to Lungs, Adipose Tissue, and Brain = 152
  Blood Pressure During Exercise = 153
 Part 3 : Blood = 155
  Exercise and Blood Volume = 155
  Exercise and Hemoglobin = 159
  Exercise and Red Blood Cells = 160
  Exercise and Hematocrit = 160
  Exercise and White Blood Cells = 160
  Exercise and Arterial Oxygen = 160
  Exercise and Venous Oxygen = 160
  Exercise and Arterio - Venous Oxygen Difference = 161
  Exercise and Blood Carbon Dioxide = 161
  Exercise and Blood Lactate = 161
  Exercise and Blood pH = 161
  Exercise and Blood Temperature = 162
  Exercise and Oxygen Release from Hemoglobin = 162
  Blood Doping = 162
 Part 4 : Pulmonary Function = 162
  Pulmonary Perfusion = 163
  Ventilation = 163
  Control Mechanisms in Exercise Hyperpriea = 163
  Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity = 166
  Pulmonary Function As a Possible Limiting Factor in Circulorespiratory Endurance = 168
  "Hypoxic" Swim Training = 168
 Summary = 168
 Review Questions = 169
 References = 169
9. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Function and Aerobic Endurance Performance = 173
 Maximal Oxygen Uptake = 173
  Some Factors That Determine Maximal Oxygen Uptake = 174
  Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Endurance Performance = 175
  Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Cardiovascular Health = 176
  Principles of Testing Maximal Oxygen Uptake = 177
  Prediction of Maxima! Oxygen Uptake from Physiological Responses to Submaximal Tests = 182
  Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake from Running Performance = 183
 Prediction of Aerobic Endurance Performance = 184
  Running Economy, Lodic Acid Levels, and Ventilation Breaking Point ("Anaerobic Threshold") = 184
 Review Questions = 188
 References = 189
10. Training for Improved Aerobic Endurance = 191
 Part 1 : Principles of Training for Aerobic Endurance = 191
  Training Should Be Individualized and Should Progress Slowly = 192
  Aerobic Training Should Impose Unaccustomed Demands Upon One's Potential for Aerobic ATP Replenishment = 192
  Training Activities Should Be Rhythmic in Nature = 193
  Oxygen Uptake Can Be Stressed Maximally by Working at Less Than Maximal Intensity = 193
  Aerobic Training Should Be Progressive = 194
  Minimal Intensity, Duration, and Frequency of Exercise Required to Improve Maximal Oxygen Uptake = 195
  Suggested Ranges of Exercise Heart Rates for Aerobic Endurance Training = 196
  Range of Expected Improvements in Maximal Oxygen Uptake = 200
  Interval Training = 200
  Loss of Aerobic. Fitness upon Cessation of Training = 203
  Maintenance of Previously Acquired Aerobic Fitness = 204
 Part 2 : Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training = 204
  Cardiovascular Function During Maximal Work = 204
  Maximal Aerobic Endurance Performance = 210
  Cardiovascular Function During Submaximal Exercise = 210
  Pulmonary Function During Submaximal Exercise = 212
  Endurance for Submaximal Exercise Loads = 212
  Mitochondrial Adaptations and Submaximal Exercise = 213
  Greater Fat Metabolism After Training = 214
  Cardiovascular Function at Rest = 214
  Pulmonary Function at Rest = 215
  Blood Characteristics = 215
 Review Questions = 216
 References = 216
11. Temperature Regulation During Exercise = 221
 The Range of Human Body Temperature = 221
 Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer = 222
 Physiological Control of Heat Transfer = 224
 Temperature Regulation in a Cool, Dry Environment = 224
  Relationships Among Body Temperatures, Sweat Rate, Exercise Loads, and Environment Temperature = 225
 Exercise in the Cold = 226
 Exercise in Hot, Humid Conditions = 227
  Work Tolerance in Heat = 227
  Maximal Oxygen Uptake in the Heat = 228
  Cardiovascular Function = 229
  Body Fluids = 230
  Electrolyte Disturbances = 230
  Guidelines for Fluid Consumption in the Heat = 232
  Weight Loss in Wrestlers = 233
  Measurement of Heat Stress = 233
  Adaptation to Exercise in the Heat = 234
  Heat Illness and Its Treatment = 235
 Review Questions = 236
 References = 237
12. The Physiological Basis of Muscular Strength = 239
 What Is Strength? = 239
 Types of Contraction = 240
  Examples of Static, Isotonic, and Isokinetic Contractions = 240
  Concentric and Eccentric Contractions = 241
 Neural Control of Muscular Strength : Graded Contractions = 242
  Motor Units = 242
 Neural Control of Muscular Force : Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons = 247
  Excitatory and Inhibitory Stimuli to Motor Neurons = 247
 Central Modifiers of Muscular Force - The Cortex, Cerebellum, Lower Brain Centers, and Spinal Cord = 248
 Peripheral Modifiers of Muscular Force - Joint Receptors, Muscle Spindles, and Tendon Organs = 250
  Muscle Spindles, the Stretch Reflex, and the Gamma Motor System = 251
 Can All Motor Units Be Activated During Maximal Effort? = 259
 Strength and Muscle Cross - sectional Area = 260
 Strength and Muscle Fiber Types = 260
 Strength and Angle of Muscle Pull on Bone = 261
 Strength and Muscle Length = 261
 Strength and Pre-exertion Countermovement (Windup) = 264
 Muscular Force and Speed of Contraction = 264
 Strength and Warmup = 266
 Strength, Age, and Sex = 267
  Variation in Strength Within Sexes and Age Groups = 268
 Review Questions = 269
 References = 269
13. Training for Improved Muscular Strength = 272
 General Principles of Strength Training = 272
  Isometric Training : General Principles = 274
  Isotonic Training : General Principles = 276
  Isokinetic Training : General Principles = 278
 Choice of Training Methods = 278
  Isometric = 279
  Isotonic = 279
  Isokinetic = 279
 Strength Trainability : Effects of Age, Sex, and Previous Training = 281
  Muscle Cross-sectional Area and Trainability = 281
  Nervous System Adaptability and Strength Training = 283
  Examples of Training Effects on Muscular Strength = 284
 Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Strength Improvement = 284
  Adaptations of the Nervous System to Strength Training = 285
  Changes in Muscle Cross-sectional Area After Training = 286
  Strength Training and Muscle Fiber Types = 288
 Effect of Improved Strength on Athletic Skills = 288
 Strength Training for Muscular Hypertrophy = 289
 Review Questions = 291
 References = 292
14. Anaerobic Power and Capacity = 294
 Tests of Maximal Anaerobic Power and Capacity = 295
  Maximal Stair Climb = 295
  The Wingate Anaerobic Cycling Test = 297
  Oxygen Debt As a Measure of Anaerobic Capacity = 298
  Other Tests of Anaerobic Capacity = 298
 Anaerobic Power, Anaerobic Capacity, and Muscle Fiber Type = 299
 Strength and Anaerobic Capacity = 299
  Strength and Relative Anaerobic Capacity = 300
 Age, Sex, and Anaerobic Capacity = 300
 Training for Improved Anaerobic Capacity = 300
  Anaerobic Training for Dynamic Activities = 301
  Anaerobic Training for Static Activities = 305
  Other Considerations = 305
  Duration of Training Effects on Anaerobic Capacity = 306
 Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Improvements in Anaerobic Capacity = 306
  Intense Static Contractions = 306
  Moderate Static Contractions = 307
  Dynamic Contractions = 308
 Review Questions = 308
 References = 309
15. Neuromuscular Fatigue and Delayed Muscular Soreness After Exercise = 311
 Anatomical Site of Fatigue = 311
  Evidence That the Central Nervous System May Be a Site of Neuromuscular Fatigue = 312
  Evidence That the Motor Nerve is Not a Site of Fatigue = 313
  Evidence That the Neuromuscufar Junction May Be a Site of Fatigue = 313
  Evidence That the Muscle May Be a Site of Fatigue = 314
 Other Factors Associated with Neuromuscular Fatigue = 319
  Muscle Fiber Type Distribution and Fatigue = 319
  Calcium Accumulation by Transverse Tubules = 319
  Ischemia and Hypoxia = 320
  Temperature = 320
  Pain and Motivation = 321
 Muscle Soreness Caused by Exercise = 321
  Delayed Soreness After Unaccustomed Exercise - The Role of Eccentric Contractions = 322
  Possible Causes of Delayed Muscle Soreness = 322
  Minimizing Muscle Soreness = 324
 Muscle Cramps and Pain in the Side = 324
 Review Questions = 325
 References = 325
16. Kidney and Gastrointestinal Responses and Adaptations to Exercise = 329
 The Kidney at Rest - A Brief Review = 329
 Kidney Responses to Exercise = 332
  Renal Blood Flow = 332
  Glomerular Filtration Rate = 334
  Urine Volume = 334
  Excretion of Urinary Solutes = 334
 Kidney Function During Recovery from Exercise = 337
 Value of Renal Responses to Exercise = 337
 Renal Adaptations to Training = 338
 Gastrointestinal Responses and Adaptations to Exercise = 338
  Exercise and Bile Secretion = 339
  Gastrointestinal Adaptations to Training = 339
 Review Questions = 339
 References = 340
17. Endocrine Responses and Adaptations to Exercise = 342
 Review of Endocrine Secretions = 342
 Mechanisms of Endocrine Action = 343
 Methods of Research in Endocrinology = 343
  Difficulties in Interpretation of Altered Hormone Concentration = 343
 Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones and Exercise = 346
  Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin) = 346
  Growth Hormone = 348
  Thyrotropin (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) = 349
  Corticotropin (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone - ACTH) = 349
  Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) = 350
  Prolactin (PRL) = 350
  Endorphins = 350
 Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine = 351
  Response to Exercise = 351
  Adaptation to Training = 351
 Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone = 352
 Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex = 352
  Cortisol Response to Exercise = 353
  Cortisol Adaptation to Training = 353
  Aldosterone Response to Exercise = 353
  Aldosterone Adaptation to Training = 354
 Sympathoadrenal Hormones = 354
  Response to Exercise = 355
  Adaptation to Training = 356
 Hormones of the Pancreas = 356
  Insulin Response to Exercise = 356
  Insulin Adaptation to Training = 357
  Glucagon Response to Exercise = 358
  Glucaoon Adaptation to Training = 358
 Testosterone = 358
  Testosterone Response to Exercise = 359
  Testosterone Adaptation to Training = 359
 Estradiol and Progesterone = 359
  Response to Exercise = 360
  Adaptation to Training = 360
  Menstrual Cycle Disturbances with Physical Training = 360
 Prostaglandins = 361
  Response to Exercise = 361
  Adaptation to Training = 361
 Somatomedins = 361
 Summary = 362
 Review Questions = 362
 References = 363
18. Exercise and Health = 366
 Experimental and Nonexperimental Evidence = 366
  Criteria for Confidence in Cause and Effect Nature of Nonexperimental Results = 367
 Exercise, Longevity, and Quality of Life = 368
  Nonexperimental Comparisons of Longevity for "Active" and "Sedentary" Human Populations = 369
  Experimental Studies of Exercise Effects on Longevity of Laboratory Animals = 369
  Quality of Life = 370
 Regular Exercise and the Prevention of Disease = 370
  Hypokinetic Degeneration = 370
  Coronary Artery Disease = 373
  Hypertension = 380
  Obesity = 380
  Stomach Ulcers = 380
  Infectious Disease = 381
 Therapeutic Benefits of Regular Exercise = 38
  Exercise Therapy for Hypokinetic Degeneration = 381
  Exercise Programs in Cardiac Rehabilitation = 381
  Exercise Therapy for Hypertension = 382
  Exercise Therapy for Vasoregulatory Asthenia = 382
  Regular Exercise and Occlusive Arterial Disease = 382
  Exercise Therapy for Pulmonary Disease = 383
  Exercise Treatment of Obesity = 383
  Other Diseases = 383
 Potentially Harmful Effects of Exercise = 384
  Fatalities in Exercise and Sport = 384
  Injuries to Bone, Cartilage, Ligaments, Tendons and Muscles = 385
  Eye Jnjuries in Squash, Racquetball and Handball = 387
  Heart Attack During Exercise = 388
  Heat Illness During Exercise = 388
  Exercise - Induced Asthma = 388
  Anaphylactic Reactions to Exercise = 388
 Review Questions = 389
 References = 389
19. Aids and Impediments to Physical Performance : Fact and Fiction = 394
 Diet = 394
  High - Carbohydrate Diet = 395
  Vitamins and Minerals = 395
  Gelatin (Glycine) = 395
  Aspartic Add = 395
  Dehydration = 396
  Water Intake Before and During Exercise = 396
  Supplementary Salt Intake = 397
 Oxygen = 397
  Oxygen Inhalation Before Exercise = 398
  Oxygen Inhalation During Exercise = 398
  Oxygen Inhalation During Recovery = 399
 High - Altitude Training = 399
 Blood Doping = 399
 Heat and Cold Applications = 400
 Active Warmup = 401
 Music = 401
 Hypnosis and Suggestion = 402
 Drugs = 403
  Amphetamines = 403
  Cocaine = 404
  Caffeine = 404
  Fencamfamine = 404
  Epinephrine (Adrenaline) = 404
  Anabolic Steroids = 405
  Alcohol = 406
  Tobacco = 406
  Marijuana = 406
  Dichloroacetic Acid = 406
  Alkalinizing Buffers = 407
  Ginseng = 407
 Air Pollution = 407
 Review Questions = 407
 References = 408
APPENDIXES
 A Units of Measurement and Conversion Factors = 411
 B Nutritive Values of the Edible Part of Foods = 419


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